Catholic and Christian Apologetics Articles

For behold, henceforth all generations will call me blessed; for he who is mighty has done great things for me, and holy is his name... (Luke 1:48f)

These are a few of my apologetics articles compiled during my years on FidoNet and recent Email discussions. Some are my own original work, others have been adapted from various excellent Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant sources.

I concentrate particularly on answering modern Evangelical/Reformed Protestant critics of the Catholic faith such as James White, William Webster, Norman Geisler and others that seem to offer some of the better arguments against the Church from a Fundamentalist viewpoint.

In recent years I've added much on skeptics and "Jesus Myth" types.

Catholic Doctrine and the Bible

Church History and the Fathers

Protestants and the Church

Orthodoxy and Other Religions
Eastern Christians, Protestantism, Mormonism, Islam

Answers to Anti-Catholic Objections
atheism/skepticism, Anglican George Salmon, Fundamentalist or Evangelicals White, Webster, Svendsen, McCarthy, Hunt

Permission to download any article granted provided that textual integrity is maintained. Please link to any of these from your website. I am slowly adding new articles so check back every few weeks for recent additions. Some of these are incomplete, or upcoming projects to be researched and written. I've had several folks ask me about them. Thanks for your interest and patience. - P

CATHOLIC DOCTRINE AND THE BIBLE1480 Latin Vulgate Illuminated Bible

Scripture and Tradition

An Outline of the Catholic Case Against Sola Scriptura by P
The main reasons that Catholics (and Orthodox) do not hold to the "Bible only" belief

Sola Scriptura? by Sean Brooks

Biblical Scholarship by Sean Brooks

Markan vs. Matthean Priority by Sean Brooks

Discussion on Sola Scriptura, Tradition and Infallibility by P
A prominent FidoNet anti-Catholic Baptist (David Goforth) and myself discuss Sola Scriptura (Scripture alone), tradition, the infallibility of the Church, and we interact with James White's new book The Roman Catholic Controversy when it was first published

Does the Bible Teach Sola Scriptura? by P
A Fundamentalist friend of Eric Williams from RCatholic-L thinks so, here's my detailed rebuttal

Formal Written Debate on Sola Scriptura by A vs. Julie Staples

Is Sola Scriptura Reasonable? by Mark Bonocore

Sacred Oral Tradition in the Early Church by Mark Bonocore

Question for the Bible Alone Believer by Mark Bonocore

Questions on Tradition and Protestant Apologists by Tim Francis

Church and Authority

List of Councils by Sean Brooks

Authority in the Church by Sean Brooks

The Church: Extension of the Incarnation by Padro

Infallibility: Prolongation of the Incarnation by Padro

The Role of the Holy Spirit in Forming the Church by Padro

Formal Written Debate on the Catholic Church by P vs. J
Debates the question "Was the Roman Catholic Church established by Christ?" (with bibliography!)

St. Peter, the Rock, the Keys, and the Primacy of Rome in the Early Church by P

In Defense of "Sola Ecclesia" by A

The Development of Doctrine by Vincent Arong

Conserving the Revelation by Padro

Inspiration and Infallibility by Padro

The Holy Spirit's Indwelling by Padro

Creed, Christ and the Trinity

A Brief Biblical Defense of the Holy Trinity by P
A short seven-step defense of the Trinity with the major biblical texts

The God-Man Jesus Christ by Marco Fallon

The Divinity of Christ by Jude Walker

The Holy Trinity and Modern Arians by P
debate on the Holy Trinity with an Arian (Harold Kupp) from the Bible and the Church Fathers, example of an extreme "Bible alone" theology that denies the historic Christian faith, one of my earlier discussions from PhileoNet

Old Testament Proofs of the Trinity by Jamie Roth

Jesus: God Incarnate by Padro

Confused Christology: Is Jesus the Son of the Holy Spirit? by Mark Bonocore

The Holy Trinity and "Oneness" Pentecostals by P
debate on the Holy Trinity with a Modalist (the heresy is also variously called "Oneness", "Jesus only", Sabellian and Monarchian), also covers the "Oneness" Pentecostal belief that Baptism should be practiced in the name of "Jesus only"

Debate on the Trinity vs. Oneness by A

Defense of the Trinity vs. Modalism by Roger Garza

Mary and the Saints

Expressions of Marian Devotion by Padro

The Communion of Saints: Dead or Alive in Christ? by David Lamb

Answering Objections to the Intercession of the Saints by Jude Walker

Latria (Worship), Dulia (Honor), and Veneration of the Saints by Raymond Cote
A response to James White back in 1995 on the old FidoNet OpenBible, I have not edited this response so it is a little rough

Perpetual Virginity and Divine Faith by Padro

The Perpetual Virginity of our Lady by P
A defense of the Catholic belief in the Blessed Virgin Mary, examines the biblical texts and historical views including the original Protestant Reformers, Protestant scholars, and the Church Fathers on perpetual virginity and Mother of God (Theotokos), from an early discussion in PhileoNet theology

Jesus' "Brothers" and Mary's Perpetual Virginity by Mark Bonocore

Immaculate Conception, Assumption, and Queenship by Mark Bonocore

The Immaculate Conception, the Bible, and the Church Fathers by P

The Meaning of Kecharitomene: Full of Grace (Luke 1:28) by pfairban

Mary's Role in the Redemption by A

Salvation and Justification

What Must a Catholic Do to be Saved? by Padro

Justification Debate by A

Biblical Catholic Teaching on Justification and Salvation by P

Sola Gratia, Solo Christo: The Catholic Doctrine of Justification by Richard A. White

Justification, Sanctification, and Merit by Padro

Grace and Justification by Padro

Grace and Salvation by Padro

Grace and Predestination by Padro

Predestination: Calvinism vs. Catholicism by Jim Burnham
Compares and contrasts the differences between the Catholic and Calvinist beliefs in Predestination and the Elect, adapted from an article by Jim Burnham

The Perseverance of the Saints: A History of the Doctrine by John Jefferson Davis

Death and the Afterlife

Arguments Against Purgatory Considered by Kevin Tierney

Examination of Conditional Immortality, "Soul Sleep" and "Annihilationism" by P
A Biblical response to a Seventh-day Adventist (and others) from FidoNet, explanation and defense of the historic Christian and Catholic understanding of the soul, heaven, hell, and the afterlife

The Hell There Is! The Bible and the Church Fathers on Eternal Hell, and Conscious Eternal Torment by P

"My Will Be Done": A Study (and Story) of the Doctrine of Hell by Jay

The Reincarnation Sensation by P
explanation and refutation of the popular Eastern religion / "New Age" belief in reincarnation to a Catholic dabbler in Wicca

CHURCH HISTORY AND THE FATHERS"...our hearts are restless, until they find rest in Thee" -- St. Augustine, Confessions

Rule of Faith and General Patristics

Scripture and Tradition: The Rule of Faith in Patristic Thought by Joe Gallegos and P
An excellent collection of quotations from the Church Fathers compiled by Joe Gallegos showing the true Rule of Faith in the ancient Church -- refutes modern Evangelical critics such as William Webster and James White who try to argue otherwise

Holy Scripture Volume IV: The Ground and Pillar of Whose Faith? by P
An unfinished critique of the large three-volume defense of Sola Scriptura by William Webster and David King titled Holy Scripture: The Ground and Pillar of Our Faith

St. Thomas Aquinas and Sola Scriptura by P
A response to a passage from his Commentary on John (cited by Webster/King, Norm Geisler, etc)

St. Athanasius on Scripture and Tradition by P
All the relevant passages from this Church Father on Scripture and Tradition in response to Webster/King

The Church Fathers and "Sola Fide" (Justification by "Faith Alone") by A
A brief look at some Fathers on justification: Ambrosiaster, St. Theodoret, St. Augustine, and St. John Chrysostom

Justification, Council of Orange and Trent, Church History, and "Apostasy" by P and others
Posts from an anti-Catholic Reformed blog with contributions by Frank Beckwith, P, James White, and others

The Church Fathers and Purgatory by P
A discussion of the Fathers on purgatory and prayers for the dead with commentary

Conversation with the "Hotmail" Fathers on Infallibility by P
Two intelligent Evangelical Baptists named (ironically) Athanasius of Alexandria and Gregory of Nyssa discuss the nature of authority, infallibility, the Church and Sola Scriptura with some prominent Internet Catholic apologists, my contributions are included

The Ante-Nicene Fathers and the Holy Trinity by P
part 2 of a debate on the Trinity with a modern Arian (Harold Kupp)

What Happens When Sola Scriptura is Affirmed? by Nathan Hatch
Sects multiply like rabbits, and essential doctrine is denied -- A lesson in early American Protestant history, adapted from Nathan Hatch's interesting study The Democratization of American Christianity

Was Luther Right on Sola Scriptura? by Padro

How Old is Jesus According to Irenaeus? by Mark Bonocore

A Challenge to James White on the Early Fathers by Mark Bonocore
From an Email exchange with Mark Bonocore, demonstrates again why Sola Scriptura is illogical, unworkable, and incompatible with the beliefs of the early Fathers, this is a challenge to James White and Jason Engwer (a White protege) to produce a single Father who was an "orthodox Christian" according to "Reformed Baptist" or "Evangelical Protestant" standards

A Summary of the Challenge to James White by Mark Bonocore and P
More from the very persistent Mark Bonocore, summary of the above challenge, also messages from P to James White and Jason Engwer from the same Email exchange



Our Baby's Baptism by Marco Fallon

Infant Baptism by Mark Bonocore

Original Sin Explained and Defended by P
A reply to an Assemblies of God pastor who denied (and misunderstood) Original Sin

Baptismal Regeneration by Mark Bonocore

Born Again: Baptism in the Early Fathers by P
Proof that the earliest Christians unanimously held a Catholic view of the Sacrament of Baptism, as even Protestant scholars admit

Did Tertullian Reject Infant Baptism? by Sean Brooks

Can Aliens be Baptized? by Sean Brooks


Jesus Our Eucharist by Marco Fallon

This is My Body: Eucharist in the Early Fathers by P
Proof that the earliest Christians unanimously held a Catholic view of the Holy Eucharist as to Real Presence and Sacrifice, covers the biblical evidence and the major Fathers and early ecclesiastical writers before St. Augustine (ante 400 AD)

The Biblical Eucharist by Brian MacMichael

The Eucharistic Sacrifice by Sean Brooks

The Grammar of the Last Supper by Vincent Arong

Relationship of the Cross and the Mass by A

Reply to Evangelical Critics of the Eucharist and the Fathers by P
Check out my reply to prominent Evangelical/Fundamentalist Protestant critics of the Eucharist, such as Norm Geisler/Ralph MacKenzie Roman Catholics and Evangelicals, and others such as James White, William Webster, Eric Svendsen

Tertullian, St. Cyprian, Origen, and St. Clement of Alexandria on the Eucharist by P
Analysis of Tertullian and Cyprian (some claim they held purely "symbolical" views), and Origen and Clement of Alexandria (who used more allegorical methods of biblical interpretation), response to an anti-Catholic of FidoNet (David Goforth) who relies heavily on Philip Schaff

St. Augustine on the Eucharist by P
Examination of the complex view of this great Father and Saint on the Holy Eucharist as to Real Presence and Sacrifice, more of my response to David Goforth, many statements from Protestant scholars Philip Schaff, JND Kelly, and Darwell Stone to demonstrate the clear Catholic view of Augustine

Confession, Penance, Reconciliation, Matrimony

Fasting and Abstinence: The Season of Lent by Marco Fallon

The Truth Hurts: Mortal Sin by Marco Fallon

Confession Explained by Mark Bonocore

Whose Sins You Forgive: Confession and Penance in the Church Fathers by P

Quest for Holiness in the Sacrament of Matrimony by Peter Frey

Holy Orders and Priesthood

Call No Man Father? by P
An explanation of this oft-used verse (Matthew 23:9) against calling our priests "Father", lists the main biblical texts for spiritual fatherhood

The Early Monarchical Episcopate by Mark Bonocore

The Church Always Had Monarchical Bishops: Response to James White by Mark Bonocore

The Ministerial Priesthood by Mark Bonocore

Female Priests in the New Testament? by Mark Bonocore

The Fittingness of Christ as Male by Padro

The Male Priesthood by Padro

About Exorcism by Sean Brooks

Blessed Virgin Mary

The Immaculate Conception of the Mother of God by Juniper Carol, Archbishop Ullathorne, edited by P

The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary by Juniper Carol, edited by P

Mary: The Mother of God by A

Development of the Immaculate Conception by A

A Reply to James White's "Mary, Another Redeemer" by William Possidento

St. Peter, the Papacy, and Apostolic Succession

Was St. Peter Ever in Rome? Refuting a Persistent Protestant Prejudice by P
Why do many Evangelicals today continue to doubt Peter's presence in Rome? -- from the humorous "Bateman on Trial" series

St. Peter, the Rock, the Keys, and the Primacy of Rome in the Early Church by P

An Answer to James White on the Early Papacy by Mark Bonocore
From the brilliant apologist Mark Bonocore, answers to ten questions on the early Papacy from James White (his protege Jason Engwer has engaged in an online debate with Mark on the Papacy, see below)

The Primacy of Peter, the Papacy, and Apostolic Succession by Mark Bonocore
A long article responding to an anti-papal essay covering many of the earliest Fathers and church writers in detail (Clement of Rome, Ignatius, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Origen, Cyprian, Augustine, some Eastern Fathers and later saints, Maximus the Confessor, Theodore the Studite) and some of the early history of Rome, the Papacy, and misunderstandings of apostolic succession

Formal Written Debate on the Early Papacy by Mark Bonocore vs. Jason Engwer
Debates the question "Was the Papacy established by Christ?"

The Title "Pontifex Maximus" or "Supreme Pontiff" by Mark Bonocore

The Council of Chalcedon and the Papacy by Mark Bonocore

The Sixth Nicene Canon (Canon 6), the Council of Nicaea and the Papacy by Fr. James F. Loughlin

Jesus, Peter, and the Keys: James White's Objections Answered by Dave Palm and Bob Sungenis
some of the best Catholic replies to James White on the primacy of St. Peter and the Papacy, includes a critique by David Palm of White's review of Jesus, Peter and the Keys by Scott Butler et al (Queenship Publishing 1996), and Robert Sungenis and David Palm on the language of Matthew 16

Dialogue on Development of Doctrine and the Papacy by P
From an Email exchange with William Webster on development, Vatican Council I, and Leo XIII encyclical Satis Cognitum

List of Anti-Popes by Sean Brooks

The Case of the Missing Pope - Solved! by P

Pope Gregory the Great and the "Universal Bishop" Controversy by P
What did Pope Gregory I in his letters to John the Faster (Patriarch of Constantinople) mean by "universal bishop" ? Was he really denying his own papal authority? Debunks a popular anti-Catholic myth perpetuated by modern Evangelical apologists

The Primitive Church and the See of Peter by Luke Rivington
The entire classic 1894 work by the Anglican convert to Catholicism, Luke Rivington, in scanned PDF and HTML format

St. Augustine, Pelagianism, and the Holy See by John Chapman
From Studies on the Early Papacy by the superb patristic scholar Dom John Chapman, demonstrates the clear recognition of Papal primacy, authority and infallibility in the early Church, and discusses in great detail the history of the Pelagian heresy, the role of St. Augustine (the origin of the famous saying "Rome has spoken; the case is closed"), the African bishops, and the Popes (Innocent I and Zosimus)

Pope Zosimus and Pelagianism by John Chapman
Part 2 of the above article from Fr. Chapman, discusses the history of the Pelagian heresy after Pope Innocent, answers the common non-Catholic objection that the controversy between Pope Zosimus and the African Bishops contradicts Papal infallibility

St. Cyprian on the Church and the Papacy by John Chapman
More from Studies on the Early Papacy by Fr. Chapman, a study of Cyprian of Carthage in response to Anglican scholars (answers as well modern anti-Catholic Evangelicals like James White and William Webster who inconsistently use these old Anglican arguments)

St. Athanasius, Arianism, and the Holy See by John Chapman
More from Studies , shows the relationship between the great opponent of the Arian heresy and Pope Julius, how they preserved the orthodox Catholic Faith, demonstrates the clear recognition of Papal authority during this post-Nicene period

St. John Chrysostom on the Apostle Peter by John Chapman
Even more from Studies by Fr. Chapman, an exhaustive study of the role and primacy of St. Peter from one of the greatest Eastern (Greek) Church Fathers

St. Jerome and Rome by John Chapman
Yet even more from Studies by Fr. Chapman, St. Jerome and his relationship to the Popes during his lifetime

Protestants and the Church

Discussion on the Nature of the Church by P
FidoNet discussion on the nature of the Church with friends of RCatholic (Jim Jeffcoat, a Catholic who has Protestant conceptions of the Church, and a big fan of CRI's Evangelical apologist Hank Hanegraaff -- also with Robert McKay, a Reformed Baptist)

Are Protestants Christians? by P
FidoNet discussion on why Protestants ARE considered Christian believers by the Catholic Church, one of my last discussions (from Sept 1998) in Fido RCatholic before I moved to the Internet

The Law of Incarnation and Protestantism by Padro

How Many Protestant Denominations Are There? Part I by Dave88, Dave Armstrong, P ( Part II: Facts and Stats )
Information from David Barrett's World Christian Encyclopedia and other sources on the thousands of Protestant denominations, sects, and cults that exist, and a response to anti-Catholic Evangelical apologist Eric Svendsen on same

A List of 9000+ Christian Denominations from "World Christian Database" published by Brill of The Netherlands
contains the raw data from Gordon-Conwell's database for 9000+ denominations broken up into major blocs of Anglicans, Independents, Marginals, Protestants, Orthodox, and "Roman Catholics" -- the vast majority are Independents and Protestants, with Anglicans/RCs approx one for each country (for 238 "Roman Catholic" countries)

The Catholic Church vs. Protestant "Denominations" by Padro

On Private Judgment by P and others

The Unam Sanctam "Problem" Resolved by P
FidoNet discussion on the papal bull of Pope Boniface VIII (Unam Sanctam) and the doctrine "No Salvation Outside the Church" -- includes commentary on the bull (especially last line on necessity of submission to the Pope for salvation) and the historical context

Who Were the Waldenses? Early Evangelicals? by P
Some have tried to claim the Waldenses were early Evangelicals (either Baptists, Plymouth Brethren, Seventh-day Adventist, or "King James Only" believers, depending on who is making the claim) that can trace their lineage back to the early Church, and were mercilessly slaughtered by the Roman Catholic Church through the centuries for belief in the Bible alone and their repudiation of Catholic doctrine -- But is this true? -- A refutation of the "baptist successionism" claim (such as that of anti-Catholic Dispensationalist Dave Hunt) from the primary source documents showing the origins of the Waldenses and how Catholic they really were

Dave Hunt and the Spanish Inquisition by P
Every Catholics' favorite Fundamentalist author makes some wild claims on the Spanish Inquisition, debunks Hunt's biased sources (Canon Llorente) and inflated figures (300,000 to "millions" tortured and put to death) from his anti-Catholic book A Woman Rides the Beast and re-affirmed in his June 1998 Berean Call newsletter

Emperor Constantine: Pagan, Christian, or First Pope? by P

Giving Witness to Your Faith by Marco Fallon

Are You Aware? The Truth of the Catholic Faith by Marco Fallon

Rome or Jerusalem? A Study of the Whore of Babylon in Revelation by Roger Garza
A polite Protestant critique of the "apostate Jerusalem" thesis of Dr. Scott Hahn's tape series on the Book of Revelation

Protestant Inquisition: The English Reformation by Dennis Martin
Presents a Catholic Counterpoint on the Inquisition and describes the persecution of Catholics during the English Reformation, from a Wheaton College graduate and professor of history at Loyola University Dennis Martin

ORTHODOXY AND OTHER RELIGIONSAnd behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus. He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David (Luke 1:31f)

Does the Orthodox Church believe in Transubstantiation? by Darwell Stone edited by P
Documentation from some  Orthodox councils and theologians (15th to 18th centuries) to show that they clearly did, and how they understand that belief today, adapted from Anglican scholar Darwell Stone's marvelous two-volume work A History of the Doctrine of the Holy Eucharist

Does the Orthodox Church believe in the Primacy of Rome? edited by P
Documentation from current Orthodox theologians to show what they concede on the subject, adapted from the book edited by Orthodox scholar John Meyendorff The Primacy of Peter

The Filioque Controversy by Padro

Musings on Theosis or Divinization by A

History of Iconoclasm (Image/Icon Breaking Heresy) by P

Exposition on the Christian Veneration of Images by Dave Armstrong

Mary and the Eastern Christian edited by P
Shows how close the Eastern Orthodox are to Roman Catholics in veneration of the all-holy Mother of God, the Blessed Virgin Mary, contains two articles from Catholic Digest on Mary and the East, and how Catholics can learn from their Eastern brethren

David T. King Meets Jaroslav Pelikan: A Question of Scholarship by Nevsky
A response to an evangelical/Reformed apologist mis-use of Orthodox scholar Pelikan's book Mary Through the Centuries

I Hate My Generation: Why I Left Evangelicalism by Tim Enloe and others

Santa or Satan? A Reply to a Funny Fundy on the History of Santa Claus by P
Is Santa from hell or can Santa be "saved", a brief history of Santa and St. Nicholas (an eastern Christian bishop of the fourth century)

The Council of Chalcedon and the Papacy by Mark Bonocore

Popes, Councils, and Orthodoxy by Mark Bonocore

Christian Unity and Orthodoxy by Mark Bonocore

Anglican Succession by Mark Bonocore


Is the Mormon Religion a Christian Religion? by Robert McKay
A series of articles by an Evangelical Baptist friend of RCatholic-L (Robert McKay) and others from Utah Missions

Mormons and Baptism by Sean Brooks

Dialogue with a Mormon by P
discussion of the Mormon concept of God(s), the nature of the true Church, apostles and prophets, and whether there was a "complete apostasy" from early Christianity with the Moderator of Fido Mormon (Tom Huber)

Meeting with a General Authority of the LDS Church by Grant Palmer
articles by longtime Mormon historian who meets with a General Authority of the LDS (Mormon) Church


Islam and the Crucifixion by Sean Brooks

Muslims, the Bible, Quran and Copyist Mistakes by Sean Brooks

Islam, the Trinity, Quran and Bible by Vincent Arong


"Jesus Myth" Ideas

The Da Vinci Code Fraud: Cracked by the Critics by P
The multi-million best-selling Dan Brown anti-Catholic "novel based on fact" thoroughly debunked

Evidence for Jesus and the Parallel "Pagan Savior" Myths (part 1) by P
Examination of the parallel pagan "crucified savior" myths (Dionysos, Mithras, Osiris, etc) and the evidence for Jesus

The Evidence for the Historical Jesus (part 2) by P
Evidence for the historical Jesus from Christian and non-Christian sources, reply to "The God Who Wasn't There" DVD

Review and Critique of "The God Who Wasn't There" by Mike Licona
A detailed critique of the "Jesus-myth" DVD featuring skeptics Brian Flemming, Earl Doherty, Robert Price, Richard Carrier, and others

Shattering the Internet Mythicists by P
Review of J.P. Holding's book Shattering the Christ Myth, discussion with some Internet Infidels "mythicists"

Reviews of On the Historicity of Jesus by Richard Carrier edited by P
A couple of critical reviews of Carrier's On the Historicity of Jesus: Why We Have Reason for Doubt

Was Inanna (Ishtar) Crucified? Was Zalmoxis Resurrected? by P
A reply to historian and anti-Christian critic Richard Carrier on these two supposed "parallels" to Christ

All About Horus: An Egyptian Copy of Christ? by P
Demolition of the "Zeitgeist" Movie and others who claim Horus = Jesus

Existence of God (see many debates on audio page)

Does God Exist? Several Arguments For by A

Does the Christian God Exist? A Debate by A vs. James Brown

The Prosecution of Vincent Bugliosi for Incompetence: Divinity of Doubt Demolished by P
The world renowned prosecutor writes on religion as an "agnostic" and attacks the Catholic Church and her doctrines, how well does he do?

Resurrection of Christ

Did Jesus Rise from the Dead? What is the Evidence? by Peter Kreeft
A reply and challenge to skeptics, adapted from chapter 8 of Handbook of Christian Apologetics by Kreeft/Tacelli

This Joyful Eastertide: A Critical Review of The Empty Tomb (PDF) by Steve Hays, et al (c) 2006
A reply and refutation of the large skeptical book on the resurrection The Empty Tomb (Prometheus, 2005) by Lowder/Price

Debate on the Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus (HTML) by William Lane Craig vs. Bart Ehrman

Archaeologists on the "Lost Tomb" of Jesus edited by P

Problem of Evil

The Problem of Evil by Vincent Arong

Solutions to the Problem of Evil by Norman Geisler and others

Bible Contradictions and Problems

Countering Biblical Contradictions by Andrew Tong et al
This is a list of answers to over 140 "biblical contradictions" saved on one page and linked to Bible Gateway

Defending the Gospels by John McClymont
A reply to "Shredding the Gospels" from Internet Infidels (defunct) "Bible Criticism" forum

The Limits of Apologetics and Reasonable Faith by Vincent Arong

Fundamentalist Anti-Catholic Critiques

A Response to Catholic "Inventions" by P
A case study in Catholic bashing, reply to an anti-Catholic Fundamentalist of FidoNet OpenBible

Bateman on Trial by P
discussion on Catholic priesthood and early Christianity, two of the more outrageous anti-Catholic Fundamentalists of FidoNet

Who Was Charles Chiniquy? Fact versus Falsehood edited by P
three articles on this infamous 19th century anti-Catholic preacher preserved from Yahoo Geocities articles

Day of Crucifixion and Resurrection of our Lord by P
Proved to be Friday and Sunday, the "Wednesday crucifixion" idea debunked, and meaning of "three days and three nights" and "Lord's Day"

David Cloud Answered by A

Discussion on Anti-Catholic Fundamentalist Dave Hunt's Research by P
An April 1999 Email discussion on Dave Hunt's sources and methods with Jason Engwer (a fan of Dave Hunt, he links to Hunt on his site)

Corresponding with an Anti-Catholic Fundamentalist by P and "Cliff"

Evangelical / Reformed / Anglican Anti-Catholic Critiques

A Reply to Anglican George Salmon's Infallibility of the Church by B.C. Butler
The book that supposedly has "never been answered" by the Catholic Church was indeed answered about 50 years ago, adapted from The Church and Infallibility: A Reply to the Abridged "Salmon" by B.C. Butler, COMPLETE preface and chapters 1 to 11

Reply to Protestant Apologist James White by P and A

Debating James White, a Correspondence, now a Book by Dave Armstrong (classic from 1995!)

Answering James White, on early Papacy, sola scriptura, Eucharist, and more! by P and others from Catholic Answers Forums (c. 2004 - 2010)

Reply to Protestant Apologist Jason Engwer by David Lamb

A $100,000 Answer to Eric Svendsen by P
A former Catholic asks some tough questions (or are they?) and promises to pay any Roman Catholic who can answer them -- here's my creative answer for the prize money! Will he pay up or not? Covers questions on Biblical inspiration, interpretation, inerrancy, Predestination, No Salvation Outside the Church, Vatican Council II, the Catholic Church and science, and more!

Refutation of James G. McCarthy's The Gospel According to Rome by P (Part 4 Authority, rest is unfinished)
A former Catholic turned Fundamentalist argues against Catholic doctrine from the Bible -- how fair and accurate is his critique? This is a full refutation of the unbiblical, unhistorical and illogical arguments of McCarthy's 1995 book The Gospel According to Rome (Harvest House, 1995)

Who Will Defend James G. McCarthy's Anti-Catholic Book? by P
A challenge was issued for a Catholic to respond to a positive reviewer of McCarthy's The Gospel According to Rome on Amazon.Com, here is my response which made the challenger back down -- Is there a Fundamentalist Christian out there who will defend this book?

An Answer to Anti-Catholic James McCarthy on Co-Redemptrix by P
This was an article I wrote in response to James McCarthy's online article on the Marian title Co-Redemptrix

Quasi-Oz Poppycock: An Exchange on James White's "Mary, Another Redeemer" by William Possidento

Pastor John F. MacArthur's Ignorant Misrepresentation of Catholic Teaching by P and others

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