This is My Body : Eucharist in the Early Fathers
See also my Reply to Evangelical Critics of the Eucharist and the Fathers
Biblical Discussion on the Eucharist
Jesus told his apostles at the Last Supper, pointing to the elements of bread and wine: "This is My body....This is My blood" (Matt 26:26-28). What did our Lord mean by these mysterious words?
Most Fundamentalists and Evangelicals believe Jesus meant his words to be taken purely "symbolically" or "figuratively" -- the bread and wine are "symbols" that "remind" us of the sacrifice of Christ on the cross for our sins. After all, Jesus said, "Do this in remembrance of Me" (Luke 22:19), so the elements of the "Lord's Supper" are symbols and reminders, nothing more. This is normally called the "symbolic" or "memorialist" view by Protestants and there are several different conceptions and understandings of the Eucharist (from the Greek for "gave thanks" or thanksgiving Luke 22:17,19) in the many thousands of Protestant churches and sects.
According to this view, there is no "Real Presence" of Christ except by the "presence" of His Holy Spirit (John 14:16f; 16:7,13; Matt 28:20) in believers. To quote Reformed Baptist apologist and anti-Catholic critic James White, "No one denies that Christ is truly present in the Lord's Supper just as He is truly present with believers on a daily basis. He promised to be with His Church until the end of the age, and we believe that He is with us. We accept that Christ truly encounters us in the Lord's Supper, and that this is a special time of communion with the Lord." (The Roman Catholic Controversy, page 165)
This is probably the view of most Fundamentalists and Evangelicals today, what might be called a "real absence" of Christ, since the elements are mere "symbols," empty "reminders" of Christ with no spiritual efficacy. There are exceptions of course, such as Evangelical Lutherans, some Methodists, some Anglicans, and others who hold to a more "substantial" presence of Christ in the Eucharist, what they might call a "Real Presence."
The Catholic view affirms the "Real Presence" of Christ in the Eucharist in that Christ is "truly, really, and substantially" present and the elements are mysteriously changed, transformed, and become the body and blood, along with the soul and divinity of Christ, the whole Christ. Also, we believe the Eucharist is a true sacrifice, in that the one and only propitiatory sacrifice of Christ is "re-presented" or "made present" for our benefit and application today. I shall call this the "literal" or "realist" view. Why do Catholics (and Orthodox) believe this?
First, we believe it is a solidly biblical teaching. Second, we know it is the clear and unanimous teaching of the Church Fathers, those early Saints, Bishops, and immediate successors of the Apostles, the Christian believers for the first several centuries of Christianity. The evidence for the Catholic belief in the Eucharist is simply overwhelming. It was not until the 11th century (with Berengarius of Tours) that this belief was challenged in the Catholic Church. Many Fundamentalists and Evangelicals who hold the purely "symbolic" view are not aware of this overwhelming testimony for the literal and realist view.
John 6 and the Real Presence
The purpose of this article is to reveal this biblical and historical testimony. The first part will be an overview of the biblical evidence for the Catholic belief. The most important and well known passage that Catholics have is the statements of Jesus in John chapter 6, especially verses 51 and following. The commentary here is taken from several Catholic apologetics sources: This Rock magazine, Catholicism and Fundamentalism by Karl Keating, and Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma by Ludwig Ott.
"I am the living bread which came down from heaven; if any one eats of this bread, he will live for ever; and the bread which I shall give for the life of the world is my flesh." The Jews then disputed among themselves, saying, "How can this man give us his flesh to eat?" So Jesus said to them, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, you have no life in you; he who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. For my flesh is food indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. he who eats my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him. As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so he who eats me will live because of me. This is the bread which came down from heaven, not such as the fathers ate and died; he who eats this bread will live for ever." (John 6:51-58, RSV)
There are several reasons why the Catholic Church takes the words of Jesus here literally and as referring to the Eucharist.
the words used
(2) the context
(3) the difficulties created by a "figurative" interpretation
(4) the consistent teaching of the Church Fathers
The Words of John 6:51ff
First, from the actual words used. He uses the realistic expressions that His flesh is TRUE, REAL FOOD and His blood is TRUE, REAL DRINK (v. 55 alethes = ACTUAL, REAL, "INDEED" not "symbolic" food or drink). Also, the Greek word for EAT (v. 54, 56-58) is trogo = "to GNAW, to CHEW" which is not the language of a metaphor.
The Context of John 6:51ff
Second, the context shows that His listeners took Jesus literally. They said "How can this Man give us His flesh to eat?" (v. 52). Jesus did NOT say "Sorry, I was only using a figure of speech for 'believing in Me.'" He intensified the offense by repeating FOUR times that they must "eat my flesh" and "drink my blood" (v. 53-56) for eternal life. Catholics see this as a promise of the Eucharist since there is no other place where Jesus uses similar language except at the institution: "Take, eat...drink... THIS IS My body...THIS IS My blood."
After His disciples said "This is a hard saying; who can understand it?" (v. 60) Jesus does NOT explain His words for He meant them as literally as they took them. And many of His disciples left and "walked with Him no more" (v. 66) and still Jesus does NOT call them back and explain "guys, I was only speaking metaphorically." On other occasions Jesus did explain His words (John 3:3ff; 4:32ff; Matt 13:34ff; Matt 16:6ff). In John 6:51ff this was not necessary since He meant His words literally and even confirms the literal understanding of His disciples and apostles at the risk that they might desert Him (v. 60ff). This is the only time where they left Jesus over a doctrinal issue.
The Difficulties of a "Figurative" Interpretation
Third, the difficulty of accepting a "figurative" interpretation of Jesus' words confirms the Catholic teaching. It is sometimes argued that since Jesus also said "I am the door" and "I am the vine" etc. then John 6:51ff could be taken metaphorically. The problem is that although Jesus is LIKE a door and LIKE a vine, etc. in no way is BREAD like His FLESH (v. 51 "...the BREAD which I shall give...is My FLESH...). By its nature "bread" cannot symbolize the BODY of Christ and the words of institution "This is My body...This is My blood" therefore have no logical parallel to Christ being the door, vine, light, rock, etc.
To further confirm the Catholic teaching, the words "EAT MY FLESH" and "DRINK MY BLOOD" used metaphorically or symbolically by the Jews means to slander, revile, hate, persecute, murder, or destroy a person. The proof is found from the Old Testament examples of the phrases (see Deut 28:53ff; 32:42; 2 Sam 23:17; Psalm 27:2; Isaiah 9:20; 49:26; Ezek 5:10ff; Bar 2:3; Micah 3:3; also Rev 17:6,16). So taken as a Jewish metaphor or symbol, Jesus is apparently commanding his disciples to slander, revile, murder or destroy Him for eternal life -- which of course makes no sense of the passage.
What Does "The Flesh is of No Avail" Mean?
It is sometimes argued by the less informed Fundamentalist that Jesus DID explain his words were "symbolic" since he clearly said: "It is the spirit that gives life, the flesh is of no avail; the words that I have spoken to you are spirit and life" (John 6:63 RSV). For example, former Catholic turned Fundamentalist James McCarthy says after quoting John 6:63, "Eternal life was to be obtained by believing Jesus' words. Eating His flesh would be profitless" (The Gospel According to Rome, page 142). The problem is that is not what Jesus said, those are not His words. His words are "the flesh is of no avail" or profitless, not "My flesh" for that would contradict his immediately prior words that one MUST "eat my flesh" and "drink my blood" for eternal life.
A more reasonable interpretation of John 6:63 would be to see "the flesh" and "the spirit" as referring to the contrast between the natural or carnal or "fleshly" man versus the spiritual or regenerate or faith-filled man (as in 1 Cor 2:14-3:3; also John 3:3-6 makes the same contrast). It takes a spiritual person with faith and the Holy Spirit to believe not only in Christ Himself (who did not "look" like God in His Incarnation), but also in the mystery of His Real Presence in the Holy Eucharist which he established for communion with Him and for the unity of His Body, the Church (1 Cor 10:17). Another possible interpretation of John 6:63 that would not contradict Jesus' previous words is that "the flesh" DOES mean Christ's flesh but in the sense of his mortal humanity without the Holy Spirit -- connecting it with the preceding verse on the Ascension (John 6:62) -- His mortal flesh by itself "is profitless" without the resurrecting power of the Spirit who gives life (2 Cor 3:6; 4:10-14; 5:4-5; etc) and who raised His body (Rom 8:11; 1 Cor 15:39-45; 1 Peter 3:18). It is that living, resurrected and ascended body of Christ we receive in the Eucharist. Neither of these two interpretations denies we receive His literal body and blood as Jesus said (John 6:51ff; Matt 26:26ff; also 1 Cor 10:16; 11:27,29).
Believing in Christ is Essential
Most Fundamentalists and Evangelicals try to interpret all the passages in John 6 as referring to faith or belief in Christ alone (for example, verse 35 which indeed speaks of "believing in Christ," and is how White, McCarthy, and others deal with John 6). Catholics too affirm that belief in Christ and faith in his sacrifice is essential for salvation, and for a proper reception of the Holy Eucharist (being the re-presentation of the sacrifice of Christ) faith is essential. However, to reduce the specific passage in verses 51 and following to "faith alone" simply does not make sense with the actual words used, the context, the said difficulties created, and the consistent understanding of the Church Fathers of the first several centuries of Christianity.
Eucharist is a True Sacrifice
One point to keep clear about the Catholic teaching is that while "The Holy Mass is a true and proper sacrifice" (De Fide), the Mass is not ANOTHER sacrifice, nor a re-sacrifice of Christ, it is the ONE offering of Christ that is RE-PRESENTED (made present) and APPLIED to us which is perpetually present before the Father in heaven. That is what Hebrews chapters 7-10 is all about. Christ is our great High Priest FOREVER who EVER LIVES to intercede for us (Heb 7:24-25). His high priestly work CONTINUES and the Mass catches us up into that heavenly Liturgy (Rev 4-5) where the ONE sacrifice of the Lamb is perpetually present before the Father.
In the Catechism of the Catholic Church the Eucharist is called
1330. ...The Holy Sacrifice, because it MAKES PRESENT the ONE sacrifice of Christ the Savior and includes the Church's offering.
That Catholics have always believed Christ DIED ONCE is taught clearly in the Council of Trent, Session 22 on the Mass --
"...our God and Lord, though He was BY HIS DEATH about to OFFER Himself ONCE [cf. Heb 7:27; Heb 9:28; Heb 10:10-14] upon the altar of the cross to God the Father that He might THERE ACCOMPLISH AN ETERNAL REDEMPTION [cf. Heb 9:12]....that bloody sacrifice ONCE TO BE ACCOMPLISHED on the cross....by the shedding of His blood HE REDEEMED AND DELIVERED US from the power of darkness and translated us into his kingdom [Col 1:13]....the same Christ who ONCE OFFERED Himself in a bloody manner on the altar of the cross..."
That the Eucharist is a true sacrifice is proved from the New Testament and Jesus' words of institution (Matt 26:26ff; Mark 14:22ff; Luke 22:19f; also 1 Cor 11:23ff). Pointing to the sacrificial character of the Eucharist is the very fact that Christ made His body and His blood present under separate forms and thus in the form of a sacrifice. The separate forms symbolically represent the real separation of the body and blood of Christ which was made in the Sacrifice of the Cross.
The words of institution attest the sacrificial character of the Eucharist. Christ designates His body a sacrifical body and His blood, sacrificial blood, when He declares: "THIS IS MY BODY WHICH SHALL BE GIVEN UP FOR YOU" : "THIS IS MY BLOOD, WHICH SHALL BE SHED FOR YOU."
The expressions "to give up the body" and "to shed blood" are biblical sacrificial terms, which express the oblation of a true and proper sacrifice. Again, Christ designates His blood as the blood of the Covenant. As the Old Covenant of God with Israel was concluded by the proffering of bloody sacrifice (see Exodus 24:8), the blood of the Covenant is synonymous, according to the biblical conception, with blood of sacrifice.
That the action of the Sacrifice is consummated in the present time is indicated by the present form of the participles (Greek didouenon and ekchunomenon) even if these do not exclude a reference to the proximate future. Especially to be noted is Luke 22:20 where the pouring-out of the chalice is asserted and thereby reference is made to the present-day Eucharistic celebration. It follows from the mandate: "DO THIS IN COMMEMORATION OF ME" (Luke 22:19; cf. 1 Cor 11:24) that the Eucharistic Sacrifice is to be a permanent institution of the New Testament.
Further evidence of the sacrificial character of the Eucharist and the Mass is found in 1 Cor 10:16-21 which contrasts the sacrifices offered to idols with the Eucharist of Christians called the "table [or altar] of the Lord"; the whole sacrificial nature of Christian worship as "spiritual sacrifices" (Heb 13:10-16; Rom 12:1; 1 Peter 2:5,9; etc); and the OT prophecy of Malachi (1:10f) and the meal-sacrifice of Melchizedek (Gen 14:18; Psalm 110:4; Heb 7; etc) which pointed toward the establishment of the Holy Eucharist of Christians.
ANAMNESIS and Memorial Sacrifice
Finally, there is the statement of Jesus concerning ANAMNESIS (Luke 22:19; 1 Cor 11:24) which clearly implies the Eucharist is to be a perpetual "memorial sacrifice" given the OT background of the language used:
Touto poieite eis ton emen anamnesin translated "Do this in remembrance of Me"
POIEIN ("DO") has sacrificial overtones. In the Septuagint (LXX), the Greek version of the OT, there are about seventy sacrificial uses of poiein. One example: "Now this is what you shall OFFER [Gr poieseis] upon the ALTAR: two lambs a year old, day by day, continually" (see Exodus 29:38).
ANAMNESIS ("REMEMBRANCE") also has sacrificial overtones. It occurs only eight times in the NT and the Greek OT. All but once (Wisdom 16:6) it is in a sacrificial context: "There is in these SACRIFICES a REMINDER [Gr anamnesis] of sin year after year" (Heb 10:3).
"And you shall put pure frankincense with each row, that it may go with the bread as a MEMORIAL portion [Gr anamnesis] to be OFFERED by fire to the Lord" (Lev 24:7).
"On the day of your gladness...you shall blow over your burnt OFFERINGS and over the SACRIFICES of your peace OFFERINGS; they shall serve you for REMEMBRANCE (Gr anamnesis) before your God" (Num 10:10).
Psalm 38 (39) is titled "A Psalm of David, for the MEMORIAL OFFERING" [Gr anamnesin]. Psalm 70 (71) is titled, "To the choir-master. A Psalm of David, for the MEMORIAL OFFERING" [Gr anamnesin].
In these cases the term ANAMNESIS can be translated as "memorial portion," "memorial offering," or "memorial sacrifice."
Thus in the remaining two occurances of ANAMNESIS (Luke 22:19; 1 Cor 11:24), Christ's words "DO THIS in REMEMBRANCE of Me," can be translated as "OFFER THIS for my memorial SACRIFICE." Given the sacrificial character of the Eucharist, there is little doubt this translation is appropriate. To tell someone, "offer this for my memorial sacrifice" is to direct him to fulfill a priestly function (see Heb 5:1; 8:3). So the Catholic Church has correctly regarded Christ's words as the institution of the apostles' priesthood and as the basis for all future priests who offer the Eucharistic sacrifice.
Faith of the Early Fathers on the Eucharist
We now delve into the beliefs of the early Fathers that supports the biblical evidence I have presented above. The major Church Fathers before St. Augustine are covered in sufficient detail. Here are the conclusions of Protestant and Anglican scholars Darwell Stone, JND Kelly, and the New Catholic Encyclopedia on the ante-Nicene Fathers, and how unanimous the Catholic Church was for 1,500 years on the Holy Eucharist. The historical testimony is simply overwhelming.
Darwell Stone's Conclusion of the Ante-Nicene Fathers
"...THROUGHOUT the writers of the period the identification of the ELEMENTS WITH THE BODY AND BLOOD OF CHRIST appears to be the ruling idea."
"The belief that the Eucharist IS A SACRIFICE is found EVERYWHERE. This belief is coupled with strong repudiations of carnal sacrifices; and is saved from being Judaic by the recognition of the ELEMENTS AS CHRIST'S BODY AND BLOOD, of the union of the action of the Church on earth with that of Christ in heaven, and of the spiritual character of that whole priestly life and service and action of the community as the body of Christ which is a distinguishing mark of the Christian system." (A History of the Doctrine of the Holy Eucharist, volume 1, page 54, emphasis added)
JND Kelly's Summary of the Ante-Nicene Fathers
"....the eucharist was regarded as the distinctively Christian SACRIFICE from the closing decade of the first century, if not earlier. Malachi's prediction (1,10f) that the Lord would reject the Jewish sacrifices and instead would have 'a pure offering' made to Him by the Gentiles in every place was early seized upon by Christians [Did 14,3; Justin dial 41,2f; Irenaeus ad haer 4,17,5] as a prophecy of the eucharist....It was natural for early Christians to think of the eucharist as a sacrifice. The fulfillment of prophecy demanded a solemn Christian offering, and the rite itself was wrapped in the sacrificial atmosphere with which our Lord invested the Last Supper....Ignatius roundly declares [Smyrn 6,2] that 'the eucharist is the flesh of our Savior Jesus Christ, which suffered for our sins and which the Father in His goodness raised'. The bread is the flesh of Jesus, the cup His blood [Rom 7,3]. CLEARLY he intends this realism to be taken STRICTLY, for he makes it the basis of his argument against the Docetists' DENIAL of the REALITY of Christ's body....Justin actually refers to the CHANGE [1 Apol 66,2]....So Irenaeus teaches [Haer 4,17,5; 4,18,4; 5,2,3] that the bread and wine are REALLY the Lord's body and blood. His witness is, indeed, all the more IMPRESSIVE because he produces it quite incidentally while refuting the Gnostic and Docetic REJECTION of the Lord's real humanity. Like Justin, too, he seems to postulate a CHANGE [Haer 4,18,5].....The eucharist was also, of course, the great act of worship of Christians, their SACRIFICE. The writers and liturgies of the period are UNANIMOUS in recognizing it as such." (Early Christian Doctrines, page 196-198, 214 emphasis added)
NEW CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA under Eucharist (as Sacrament)
"Nothing is more solid than the UNANIMITY of belief in the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist for the first 1,500 years of the Church. The spontaneous uproar caused by men such as Berengarius of Tours (d. 1088) only attests the more to the unquestioned acceptance of the Real Presence. This UNANIMOUS belief of 1,500 years is itself an argument to its truth. For it is impossible that the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of Truth, could leave the Church in error over a long period of time about one of the central doctrines of Christianity, according to the argument from prescription." (NCE, volume 5, page 604)
Almost all of the following excerpts are found in the three-volume set Faith of the Early Fathers by William Jurgens, and many of the same passages found in the four-volume Patrology by Johannes Quasten.
Ante-Nicene Church Fathers
ST. CLEMENT OF ROME (c. 80 A.D.)
Our sin will not be small if we eject from the episcopate those who blamelessly and holily have OFFERED ITS SACRIFICES [or offered the gifts, referring to the Eucharist]. (Letter to Corinthians 44:4)
ST. IGNATIUS OF ANTIOCH (c. 110 A.D.)
I have no taste for corruptible food nor for the pleasures of this life. I desire the Bread of God, WHICH IS THE FLESH OF JESUS CHRIST, who was of the seed of David; and for drink I DESIRE HIS BLOOD, which is love incorruptible. (Letter to Romans 7:3)
Take care, then, to use one Eucharist, so that whatever you do, you do according to God: FOR THERE IS ONE FLESH OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST, and one cup IN THE UNION OF HIS BLOOD; one ALTAR, as there is one bishop with the presbytery... (Letter to Philadelphians 4:1)
They [i.e. the Gnostics] abstain from the Eucharist and from prayer, because they do not confess that THE EUCHARIST IS THE FLESH OF OUR SAVIOR JESUS CHRIST, flesh which suffered for our sins and which the Father, in his goodness, raised up again. (Letter to Smyrn 7:1)
ST. JUSTIN THE MARTYR (c. 100 - 165 A.D.)
We call this food Eucharist; and no one else is permitted to partake of it, except one who believes our teaching to be true and who has been washed in the washing which is for the remission of sins and for regeneration [Baptism], and is thereby living as Christ has enjoined.
For not as common bread nor common drink do we receive these; but since Jesus Christ our Savior was made incarnate by the word of God and had both flesh and blood for our salvation, so too, as we have been taught, the food which has been made into the Eucharist by the Eucharistic prayer set down by Him, AND BY THE CHANGE OF WHICH our blood and flesh is nourished, IS BOTH THE FLESH AND THE BLOOD OF THAT INCARNATED JESUS. (First Apology 66)
Moreover, as I said before, concerning the sacrifices which you at that time offered, God speaks through Malachi [1:10-12]...It is of the SACRIFICES OFFERED TO HIM IN EVERY PLACE BY US, the Gentiles, that is, OF THE BREAD OF THE EUCHARIST AND LIKEWISE OF THE CUP OF THE EUCHARIST, that He speaks at that time; and He says that we glorify His name, while you profane it. (Dialogue with Trypho 41)
DIDACHE or TEACHING OF THE TWELVE APOSTLES (c. 140 A.D.)
On the Lord's Day of the Lord gather together, break bread and give thanks, after confessing your transgressions SO THAT YOUR SACRIFICE MAY BE PURE. Let no one who has a quarrel with his neighbor join you until he is reconciled by the Lord: "In every place and time let there be OFFERED TO ME A CLEAN SACRIFICE. For I am a Great King," says the Lord, "and My name is wonderful among the Gentiles." (14:1-2)
ST. IRENAEUS (c. 140 - 202 A.D.)
...He took from among creation that which is bread, and gave thanks, saying, "THIS IS MY BODY." The cup likewise, which is from among the creation to which we belong, HE CONFESSED TO BE HIS BLOOD.
He taught THE NEW SACRIFICE OF THE NEW COVENANT, of which Malachi, one of the twelve prophets, had signified beforehand: [quotes Mal 1:10-11]. By these words He makes it plain that the former people will cease to make offerings to God; BUT THAT IN EVERY PLACE SACRIFICE WILL BE OFFERED TO HIM, and indeed, a pure one; for His name is glorified among the Gentiles. (Against Heresies 4:17:5)
But what consistency is there in those who hold that the bread over which thanks have been given IS THE BODY OF THEIR LORD, and the cup HIS BLOOD, if they do not acknowledge that He is the Son of the Creator... How can they say that the flesh which has been nourished BY THE BODY OF THE LORD AND BY HIS BLOOD gives way to corruption and does not partake of life? ...For as the bread from the earth, receiving the invocation of God, IS NO LONGER COMMON BREAD BUT THE EUCHARIST, consisting of two elements, earthly and heavenly... (Against Heresies 4:18:4-5)
If the BODY be not saved, then, in fact, neither did the Lord redeem us with His BLOOD; and neither is the cup of the EUCHARIST THE PARTAKING OF HIS BLOOD nor is the bread which we break THE PARTAKING OF HIS BODY...He has declared the cup, a part of creation, TO BE HIS OWN BLOOD, from which He causes our blood to flow; and the bread, a part of creation, HE HAS ESTABLISHED AS HIS OWN BODY, from which He gives increase to our bodies.
When, therefore, the mixed cup and the baked bread receives the Word of God and BECOMES THE EUCHARIST, THE BODY OF CHRIST, and from these the substance of our flesh is increased and supported, how can they say that the flesh is not capable of receiving the gift of God, WHICH IS ETERNAL LIFE -- flesh which is nourished BY THE BODY AND BLOOD OF THE LORD...receiving the Word of God, BECOMES THE EUCHARIST, WHICH IS THE BODY AND BLOOD OF CHRIST... (Against Heresies 5:2:2-3)
TERTULLIAN (c. 155 - 250 A.D.)
Likewise, in regard to days of fast, many do not think they should be present at the SACRIFICIAL prayers, because their fast would be broken if they were to receive THE BODY OF THE LORD...THE BODY OF THE LORD HAVING BEEN RECEIVED AND RESERVED, each point is secured: both the participation IN THE SACRIFICE... (Prayer 19:1)
The flesh feeds on THE BODY AND BLOOD OF CHRIST, so that the SOUL TOO may fatten on God. (Resurrection of the Dead 8:3)
The Sacrament of the Eucharist, which the Lord commanded to be taken at meal times and by all, we take even before daybreak in congregations... WE OFFER SACRIFICES FOR THE DEAD on their birthday anniversaries.... We take anxious care lest something of our Cup or Bread should fall upon the ground... (The Crown 3:3-4)
A woman, after the death of her husband, is bound not less firmly but even more so, not to marry another husband...Indeed, she prays for his soul and asks that he may, while waiting, find rest; and that he may share in the first resurrection. And each year, on the anniversary of his death, SHE OFFERS THE SACRIFICE. (Monogamy 10:1,4)
ORIGEN (c. 185 - 254 A.D.)
We give thanks to the Creator of all, and, along with thanksgiving and prayer for the blessings we have received, we also eat the bread presented to us; and this bread BECOMES BY PRAYER A SACRED BODY, which sanctifies those who sincerely partake of it. (Against Celsus 8:33)
You see how the ALTARS are no longer sprinkled with the blood of oxen, but consecrated BY THE PRECIOUS BLOOD OF CHRIST. (Homilies on Josue 2:1)
But if that text (Lev 24:5-9) is taken to refer to the greatness of what is mystically symbolized, then there is a 'commemoration' which has an EFFECT OF GREAT PROPITIATORY VALUE. If you apply it to that 'Bread which came down from heaven and gives life to the world,' that shewbread which 'God has offered to us as a means of reconciliation, in virtue of faith, ransoming us with his blood,' and if you look to that commemoration of which the Lord says, 'Do this in commemoration of me,' then you will find that this is the unique commemoration WHICH MAKES GOD PROPITIOUS TO MEN. (Homilies on Leviticus 9)
You are accustomed to take part in the divine mysteries, so you know how, when you have received THE BODY OF THE LORD, you reverently exercise every care lest a particle of it fall, and lest anything of the consecrated gift perish....how is it that you think neglecting the word of God a lesser crime than neglecting HIS BODY? (Homilies on Exodus 13:3)
...now, however, in full view, there is the true food, THE FLESH OF THE WORD OF GOD, as He Himself says: "MY FLESH IS TRULY FOOD, AND MY BLOOD IS TRULY DRINK." (Homilies on Numbers 7:2)
ST. CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA (c. 150 - 216 A.D.)
Calling her children about her, she [the Church] nourishes them with holy milk, that is, with the Infant Word...The Word is everything to a child: both Father and Mother, both Instructor and Nurse. "EAT MY FLESH," He says, "AND DRINK MY BLOOD." The Lord supplies us with these intimate nutriments. HE DELIVERS OVER HIS FLESH, AND POURS OUT HIS BLOOD; and nothing is lacking for the growth of His children. O incredible mystery! (Instructor of Children 1:6:42,1,3)
ST. CYPRIAN OF CARTHAGE (c. 200 - 258 A.D.)
And we ask that this Bread be given us daily, so that we who are in Christ and daily receive THE EUCHARIST AS THE FOOD OF SALVATION, may not, by falling into some more grievous sin and then in abstaining from communicating, be withheld from the heavenly Bread, and be separated from Christ's Body...
He Himself warns us, saying, "UNLESS YOU EAT THE FLESH OF THE SON OF MAN AND DRINK HIS BLOOD, YOU SHALL NOT HAVE LIFE IN YOU." Therefore do we ask that our Bread, WHICH IS CHRIST, be given to us daily, so that we who abide and live in Christ may not withdraw from His sanctification and from His Body. (The Lord's Prayer 18)
Also in the priest Melchisedech we see THE SACRAMENT OF THE SACRIFICE OF THE LORD prefigured...The order certainly is that which comes from his [Mel's] sacrifice and which comes down from it: because Mel was a priest of the Most High God; because he offered bread; and because he blessed Abraham. And who is more a priest of the Most High God than our Lord Jesus Christ, who, WHEN HE OFFERED SACRIFICE TO GOD THE FATHER, OFFERED THE VERY SAME WHICH MELCHISEDECH HAD OFFERED, NAMELY BREAD AND WINE, WHICH IS IN FACT HIS BODY AND BLOOD! (Letters 63:4)
If Christ Jesus, our Lord and God, is Himself the High Priest of God the Father; AND IF HE OFFERED HIMSELF AS A SACRIFICE TO THE FATHER; AND IF HE COMMANDED THAT THIS BE DONE IN COMMEMORATION OF HIMSELF -- then certainly the priest, who imitates that which Christ did, TRULY FUNCTIONS IN PLACE OF CHRIST. (Letters 63:14)
Nicene and Post-Nicene Church Fathers
COUNCIL OF NICAEA (c. 325 A.D.)
It has come to the attention of the holy and great council that in some localities and cities deacons give the Eucharist to presbyters, although neither the canon nor the custom permits those who do NOT offer sacrifice to give the Body of Christ to those who do offer the sacrifice... (Canon 18)
APHRAATES THE PERSIAN SAGE (c. 280 - 345 A.D.)
After having spoken thus ["This is My body...This is My blood"], the Lord rose up from the place where He had made the Passover and had given His Body as food and His Blood as drink, and He went with His disciples to the place where He was to be arrested. But He ate of His own Body and drank of His own Blood, while He was pondering on the dead. With His own hands the Lord presented His own Body to be eaten, and before He was crucified He gave His blood as drink... (Treatises 12:6)
ST. EPHRAIM (c. 306 - 373 A.D.)
Our Lord Jesus took in His hands what in the beginning was only bread; and He blessed it, and signed it, and made it holy in the name of the Father and in the name of the Spirit; and He broke it and in His gracious kindness He distributed it to all His disciples one by one. He called the bread His living Body, and did Himself fill it with Himself and the Spirit. And extending His hand, He gave them the Bread which His right hand had made holy: "Take, all of you eat of this, which My word has made holy. Do not now regard as bread that which I have given you; but take, eat this Bread [of life], and do not scatter the crumbs; for what I have called My Body, that it is indeed. One particle from its crumbs is able to sanctify thousands and thousands, and is sufficient to afford life to those who eat of it. Take, eat, entertaining no doubt of faith, because this is My Body, and whoever eats it in belief eats in it Fire and Spirit. But if any doubter eat of it, for him it will be only bread. And whoever eats in belief the Bread made holy in My name, if he be pure, he will be preserved in his purity; and if he be a sinner, he will be forgiven." But if anyone despise it or reject it or treat it with ignominy, it may be taken as a certainty that he treats with ignominy the Son, who called it and actually made it to be His Body.
After the disciples had eaten the new and holy Bread, and when they understood by faith that they had eaten of Christ's body, Christ went on to explain and to give them the whole Sacrament. He took and mixed a cup of wine. Then He blessed it, and signed it, and made it holy, declaring that it was His own Blood, which was about to be poured out...Christ commanded them to drink, and He explained to them that the cup which they were drinking was His own Blood: "This is truly My Blood, which is shed for all of you. Take, all of you, drink of this, because it is a new covenant in My Blood. As you have seen Me do, do you also in My memory. Whenever you are gathered together in My name in Churches everywhere, do what I have done, in memory of Me. Eat My Body, and drink My Blood, a covenant new and old." (Homilies 4:4; 4:6)
ST. ATHANASIUS (c. 295 - 373 A.D.)
You shall see the Levites bringing loaves and a cup of wine, and placing them on the table. So long as the prayers of supplication and entreaties have not been made, there is only bread and wine. But after the great and wonderful prayers have been completed, then the bread is become the Body, and the wine the Blood, of our Lord Jesus Christ....Let us approach the celebration of the mysteries. This bread and this wine, so long as the prayers and supplications have not taken place, remain simply what they are. But after the great prayers and holy supplications have been sent forth, the Word comes down into the bread and wine -- and thus is His Body confected. (Sermon to the Newly Baptized, from Eutyches)
ST. CYRIL OF JERUSALEM (c. 350 A.D.)
For just as the bread and the wine of the Eucharist before the holy invocation of the adorable Trinity were simple bread and wine, but the invocation having been made, the bread becomes the Body of Christ and the wine the Blood of Christ... (Catechetical Lectures 19 [Mystagogic 1], 7)
This one teaching of the blessed Paul is enough to give you complete certainty about the Divine Mysteries, by your having been deemed worthy of which, you have become united in body and blood with Christ. For Paul proclaimed clearly that: "On the night in which He was betrayed, our Lord Jesus Christ, taking bread and giving thanks, broke it and gave it to His disciples, saying: 'Take, eat, This is My Body.' And taking the cup and giving thanks, He said, 'Take, drink, This is My Blood.'" He Himself, therefore, having declared and said of the Bread, "This is My Body," who will dare any longer to doubt? And when He Himself has affirmed and said, "This is My Blood," who can ever hesitate and say it is not His Blood? (22 [Mystagogic 4], 1)
Once in Cana of Galilee He changed the water into wine, a thing related to blood; and is His changing of wine into Blood not credible? When invited to an ordinary marriage, with a miracle He performed that glorious deed. And is it not much more to be confessed that He has betowed His Body and His Blood upon the wedding guests? (22 [Mystagogic 4], 2)
Do not, therefore, regard the Bread and the Wine as simply that; for they are, according to the Master's declaration, the Body and Blood of Christ. Even though the senses suggest to you the other, let faith make you firm. Do not judge in this matter by taste, but -- be fully assured by the faith, not doubting that you have been deemed worthy of the Body and Blood of Christ. (22 [Mystagogic 4], 6)
Having learned these things, and being fully convinced that the apparent bread is not bread, even though it is sensible to the taste, but the Body of Christ; and that the apparent Wine is not wine, even though the taste would have it so... (22 [Mystagogic 4], 9)
Then, having sanctified ourselves by these spiritual songs, we call upon the benevolent God to send out the Holy Spirit upon the gifts which have been laid out: that He may make the bread the Body of Christ, and the wine the Blood of Christ; for whatsoever the Holy Spirit touches, that is sanctified and changed. (23 [Mystagogic 5], 7)
Then, upon the completion of the spiritual sacrifice, the bloodless worship, over that PROPITIATORY victim we call upon God for the common peace of the Churches, for the welfare of the world, for kings, for soldiers and allies, for the sick, for the afflicted; and in summary, we all pray and OFFER THIS SACRIFICE FOR ALL WHO ARE IN NEED.
Then we make mention also of those who have already fallen asleep: first, the patriarchs, prophets, Apostles, and martyrs, that through their prayers and supplications God would receive our petition; next, we make mention also of the holy fathers and bishops who have already fallen asleep, and, to put it simply, of all among us who have already fallen asleep; for we believe that it will be of very great benefit to the souls of those for whom the petition is carried up, while this HOLY AND MOST SOLEMN SACRIFICE IS LAID OUT.
For I know that there are many who are saying this: 'If a soul departs from this world with sins, what does it profit it to be remembered in the prayer?'...[we] grant a remission of their penalties...we too offer prayers to Him for those who have fallen asleep though they be sinners. We do not plait a crown, but OFFER UP CHRIST WHO HAS BEEN SACRIFICED FOR OUR SINS; AND WE THEREBY PROPITIATE THE BENEVOLENT GOD FOR THEM AS WELL AS FOR OURSELVES. (23 [Mystagogic 5], 8, 9, 10)
ST. HILARY OF POITIERS (c. 315 - 368 A.D.)
When we speak of the reality of Christ's nature being in us, we would be speaking foolishly and impiously -- had we not learned it from Him. For He Himself says: "My Flesh is truly Food, and My Blood is truly Drink. He that eats My Flesh and drinks My Blood will remain in Me and I in Him." As to the reality of His Flesh and Blood, there is no room left for doubt, because now, both by the declaration of the Lord Himself and by our own faith, it is truly Flesh and it is truly Blood. And These Elements bring it about, when taken and consumed, that we are in Christ and Christ is in us. Is this not true? Let those who deny that Jesus Christ is true God be free to find these things untrue. But He Himself is in us through the flesh and we are in Him, while that which we are with Him is in God. (The Trinity 8:14)
ST. BASIL THE GREAT (c. 330 - 379 A.D.)
To communicate each day and to partake of the holy Body and Blood of Christ is good and beneficial; for He says quite plainly: "He that eats My Flesh and drinks My Blood has eternal life." Who can doubt that to share continually in life is the same thing as having life abundantly? We ourselves communicate four times each week...and on other days if there is a commemoration of any saint. (Letter of Basil to a Patrician Lady Caesaria)
ST. GREGORY OF NAZIANZ (c. 330 - 389 A.D.)
The tongue of a priest meditating on the Lord raises the sick. Do, then, the greater thing by celebrating the liturgy, and loose the great mass of my sins when you lay hold of the Sacrifice of the Resurrection. Most Reverend friend, Cease not to pray and plead for me when you draw down the Word by your word, when in an unbloody cutting you cut the Body and Blood of the Lord, using your voice for a sword. (Letter of Gregory to Amphilochius, Bishop of Iconium)
ST. GREGORY OF NYSSA (c. 335 - 394 A.D.)
This Body, by the indwelling of God the Word, has been made over to divine dignity. Rightly then, do we believe that the bread consecrated by the word of God has been made over into the Body of God the Word. For that Body was, as to its potency, bread; but it has been consecrated by the lodging there of the Word, who pitched His tent in the flesh. From the same cause, therefore, by which the bread that was made over into that Body is made to change into divine strength, a similar result now takes place. As in the former case, in which the grace of the Word made holy that body the substance of which is from bread, and in a certain manner is itself bread, so in this case too, the bread, as the Apostle says, "is consecrated by God's word and by prayer"; not through its being eaten does it advance to become the Body of the Word, but it is made over immediately into the Body by means of the word, just as was stated by the Word, "This is My Body!" ...In the plan of His grace He spreads Himself to every believer by means of that Flesh, the substance of which is from wine and bread, blending Himself with the bodies of believers, so that by this union with the Immortal, man, too, may become a participant in incorruption. These things He bestows through the power of the blessing which transforms the nature of the visible things to that [of the Immortal]. (The Great Catechism 37)
The bread again is at first common bread; but when the mystery sanctifies it, it is called and actually becomes the Body of Christ. So too the mystical oil, so too the wine; if they are things of little worth before the blessing, after their sanctification by the Spirit each of them has its own superior operation. This same power of the word also makes the priest venerable and honorable, separated from the generality of men by the new blessing bestowed upon him. (Sermon on the Day of Lights or On the Baptism of Christ)
He offered Himself for us, Victim and Sacrifice, and Priest as well, and "Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world." When did He do this? When He made His own Body food and His own Blood drink for His disciples; for this much is clear enough to anyone, that a sheep cannot be eaten by a man unless its being eaten be preceded by its being slaughtered. This giving of His own Body to His disciples for eating clearly indicates that the sacrifice of the Lamb has now been completed. (Sermon One on the Resurrection of Christ)
ST. EPIPHANIUS OF SALAMIS (c. 315 - 403 A.D.)
We see that the Savior took in His hands, as it is in the Gospel, when He was reclining at the supper; and He took this, and giving thanks, He said: "This is really Me." And He gave to His disciples and said: "This is really Me." And we see that It is not equal nor similar, not to the incarnate image, not to the invisible divinity, not to the outline of His limbs. For It is round of shape, and devoid of feeling. As to Its power, He means to say even of Its grace, "This is really Me"; and none disbelieves His word. For anyone who does not believe the truth in what He says is deprived of grace and of Savior. (The Man Well-Anchored 57)
THEODORE OF MOPSUESTIA (cd. 428 A.D.)
He did not say, "This is the symbol of My Body, and this, of My Blood," but "This is My Body and My Blood," teaching us not to look upon the nature of what is set before us, but that it is transformed by means of the Eucharistic action into Flesh and Blood. (Commentary on Matthew 26:26)
It is proper, therefore, that when [Christ] gave the Bread He did not say, "This is the symbol of My Body," but, "This is My Body." In the same way when He gave the Cup He did not say, "This is the symbol of My Blood," but, "This is My Blood"; for He wanted us to look upon the [Eucharistic elements] after their reception of grace and the coming of the Holy Spirit not according to their nature, but [that we should] receive them as they are, the Body and Blood of our Lord. We ought...not regard the [Eucharistic elements] merely as bread and cup, but as the Body and Blood of Christ, into which they were transformed by the descent of the Holy Spirit. (Catechetical Homilies 5)
[If we have sinned], the Body and Blood of our Lord...will strengthen us...if with diligence we do good works and turn from evil deeds and truly repent of the sins that befall us, undoubtedly we shall obtain the grace of the remission of our sins in our receiving of the holy Sacrament. (Catechetical Homilies 16)
At first [the offering] is laid upon the altar as mere bread, and wine mixed with water; but by the coming of the Holy Spirit it is transformed into the Body and the Blood, and thus it is changed into the power of a spiritual and immortal nourishment. (Catechetical Homilies 16)
ST. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM (c. 344 - 407 A.D.)
When you see the Lord IMMOLATED and lying upon the ALTAR, and the priest bent over that SACRIFICE praying, and all the people empurpled by that PRECIOUS BLOOD, can you think that you are still among men and on earth? Or are you not lifted up to heaven? (Priesthood 3:4:177)
Reverence, therefore, reverence this table, of which we are all communicants! Christ, slain for us, the SACRIFICIAL VICTIM WHO IS PLACED THEREON! (Homilies on Romans 8:8)
Christ is present. The One [Christ] who prepared that [Holy Thursday] table is the very One who now prepares this [altar] table. For it is not a man who makes the SACRIFICIAL GIFTS BECOME the Body and Blood of Christ, but He that was crucified for us, Christ Himself. The priest stands there carrying out the action, but the power and the grace is of God, "THIS IS MY BODY," he says. This statement TRANSFORMS the gifts. (Homilies on Treachery of Judas 1:6)
Let us therefore in all respects put our faith in God and contradict Him in nothing, even if what is said seems to be contrary to our reasonings and to what we see. Let His WORD be of superior authority to reason and sight. This too be our practice in respect to the [Eucharistic] Mysteries, not looking only upon what is laid out before us, but taking heed also of His WORDS. For His WORD cannot deceive; but our senses are easily cheated. His WORD never failed; our senses err most of the time. When the WORD says, "THIS IS MY BODY," be convinced of it and believe it, and look at it with the eyes of the mind. For Christ did not give us something tangible, but even in His tangible things all is intellectual. So too with Baptism: the gift is bestowed through what is a tangible thing, water; but what is accomplished is intellectually perceived: the REBIRTH and the RENEWAL....How many now say, "I wish I could see his shape, His appearance, His garments, His sandals." ONLY LOOK! YOU SEE HIM! YOU TOUCH HIM! YOU EAT HIM! (Homilies on Matthew 82:4)
Take care, then, lest you too become guilty of the Body and Blood of Christ [1 Cor 11:27]. They slaughtered His most holy body; but you, after such great benefits, receive HIM into a filthy soul. For it was not enough for Him to be made Man, to be struck and to be slaughtered, but He even mingles Himself with us; and this NOT BY FAITH ONLY, but even in every DEED He makes us His BODY. How very pure, then, ought he not be, who enjoys the benefit of this SACRIFICE? (ibid 82:5)
...if everywhere grace required worthiness, there could neither then be Baptism nor Body of Christ nor the sacrifice priests offer.....now He has transferred the priestly action [of ancient times] to what is most awesome and magnificent. He has changed the sacrifice itself, and instead of the butchering of dumb beasts, He commands the offering up of Himself....What is that Bread? The Body of Christ! What do they become who are partakers therein? The Body of Christ! Not many bodies, but one Body....For you are not nourished by one Body while someone else is nourished by another Body; rather, all are nourished by the same Body....When you see [the Body of Christ] lying on the altar, say to yourself, "Because of this Body I am no longer earth and ash, no longer a prisoner, but free. Because of this Body I hope for heaven, and I hope to receive the good things that are in heaven, immortal life, the lot of the angels, familiar conversation with Christ. This Body, scourged and crucified, has not been fetched by death...This is that Body which was blood-stained, which was pierced by a lance, and from which gushed forth those saving fountains, one of blood and the other of water, for all the world"...This is the Body which He gave us, both to hold in reserve and to eat, which was appropriate to intense love; for those whom we kiss with abandon we often even bite with our teeth. (Homilies on Corinthians 8, 1; 24, 2; 24, 2; 24, 4)
"So also was Christ offered once." [Hebrews 7-10] By whom was He offered? Quite evidently, by Himself. Here [Paul] shows that Christ was not Priest only, but also Victim and Sacrifice. Therein do we find the reason for the words "was offered." "He was offered once," [Paul] says, "to take away the sins of many." Why does he say of many and not of all? Because not all have believed. He did indeed die for all, for the salvation of all, which was His part....But He did not take away the sins of all men, because they did not will it....What then? Do we not offer daily? Yes, we offer, but making remembrance of His death; and this remembrance is one and not many. How is it one and not many? Because this Sacrifice is offered once, like that in the Holy of Holies. This Sacrifice is a type of that, and this remembrance a type of that. We offer always the same, not one sheep now and another tomorrow, but the same thing always. Thus there is one Sacrifice. By this reasoning, since the Sacrifice is offered everywhere, are there, then, a multiplicity of Christs? By no means! Christ is one everywhere. He is complete here, complete there, one Body. And just as He is one Body and not many though offered everywhere, so too is there one Sacrifice. (Homilies on Hebrews 17, 2; 17, 3)
Not in vain was it decreed BY THE APOSTLES that in the awesome Mysteries remembrance should be made of the DEPARTED. They knew that here there was much gain for them, much benefit. For when the entire people stands with hands uplifted, a priestly assembly, and that awesome SACRIFICIAL VICTIM is laid out, how, when we are calling upon God, should we not succeed in their defense? But this is done for those who have DEPARTED in the faith, while even the catechumens are not reckoned as worthy of this consolation, but are deprived of every means of assistance except one. And what is that? We may give alms to the poor on their behalf. (Homilies on Philippians 3:4)
APOSTOLIC CONSTITUTIONS (c. 400 A.D.)
A bishop gives the blessing, he does not receive it. He imposes hands, he ordains, he OFFERS THE SACRIFICE...A deacon does not bless. He does not bestow blessing, but he receives it from bishop and presbyter. He does not baptize; he does not OFFER THE SACRIFICE. When a bishop or a presbyter OFFERS THE SACRIFICE, he distributes to the laity, not as a priest, but as one who is ministering to priests. (8:28:2-4)
ST. AMBROSE OF MILAN (c. 333 - 397 A.D.)
We saw the Prince of Priests coming to us, we saw and heard Him offering His blood for us. We follow, inasmuch as we are able, being priests; and we offer the sacrifice on behalf of the people. And even if we are of but little merit, still, in the sacrifice, we are honorable. For even if Christ is not now seen as the one who offers the sacrifice, nevertheless it is He Himself that is offered in sacrifice here on earth when the body of Christ is offered. Indeed, to offer Himself He is made visible in us, he whose word makes holy the sacrifice that is offered. (Commentaries on Psalms 38:25)
A priest must offer something in sacrifice and according to the Law he must enter the holy place through blood. Therefore, because God had repudiated the blood of bulls and of rams, it was necessary for this Priest, as you have read, to enter into the Holy of Holies, penetrating the heights of heaven, by means of His own blood, so that He might become an eternal oblation for our sins. Priest and Victim, therefore, are one and the same. But the priesthood and the sacrifice are a duty of the human condition; for like a lamb He was led to the slaughter, and He is a priest according to the order of Melchisedech. (The Faith 3:11:87)
"My flesh is truly food and My blood is truly drink." You hear Him speak of His flesh, you hear Him speak of His blood, you know the sacred signs of the Lord's death; and do you worry about His divinity? Hear His words when he says: "A spirit has not flesh and bones." As often as we receive the sacramental elements which through the mystery of the sacred prayer are transformed into the flesh and blood of the Lord, we proclaim the death of the Lord. (The Faith 4:10:124)
Perhaps you may be saying: I see something else; how can you assure me that I am receiving the Body of Christ? It but remains for us to prove it. And how many are the examples we might use! Let us prove that this is not what nature has shaped it to be, but what the blessing has consecrated; for the power of the blessing is greater than that of nature, because by the blessing even nature itself is changed...Christ is in that Sacrament, because it is the Body of Christ; yet, it is not on that account corporeal food, but spiritual. Whence also His Apostle says of the type: "For our fathers ate spiritual food and drank spiritual drink" (1 Cor 10:2-4; 15:44). For the body of God is a spiritual body. (The Mysteries 9:50; 9:58)
You may perhaps say: "My bread is ordinary." But that bread is bread before the words of the Sacraments; where the consecration has entered in, the bread becomes the flesh of Christ. And let us add this: How can what is bread be the Body of Christ? By the consecration. The consecration takes place by certain words; but whose words? Those of the Lord Jesus. Like all the rest of the things said beforehand, they are said by the priest; praises are referred to God, prayer of petition is offered for the people, for kings, for other persons; but when the time comes for the confection of the venerable Sacrament, then the priest uses not his own words but the words of Christ. Therefore it is the word of Christ that confects this Sacrament....Before it be consecrated it is bread; but where the words of Christ come in, it is the Body of Christ. Finally, hear Him saying: "All of you take and eat of this; for this is My Body." And before the words of Christ the chalice is full of wine and water; but where the words of Christ have been operative it is made the Blood of Christ, which redeems the people. (The Sacraments 4:4:14; 4:5:23)
ST. JEROME (c. 347 - 420 A.D.)
Far be it from me to speak adversely of any of these clergy who, in succession from the Apostles, confect by their sacred word the Body of Christ, and through whose efforts also it is that we are Christians... (Letter of Jerome to Heliodorus)
The flesh and blood of Christ is understood in two ways; there is either the spiritual and divine way, by which He Himself said: "My flesh is truly food, and my blood is truly drink"; and "Unless you shall have eaten my flesh and drunk my blood you shall not have eternal life." Or else there is the flesh and blood which was crucified and which was poured out by the soldier's lance. (Commentaries on Ephesians 1:1:7)
After the type had been fulfilled by the passover celebration and He had eaten the flesh of the lamb with His Apostles, He takes bread which strengthens the heart of man, and goes on to the true Sacrament of the passover, so that just as Melchisedech, the priest of the Most High God, in prefiguring Him, made bread and wine an offering, He too makes Himself manifest in the reality of His own Body and Blood. (Commentaries on Matthew 4:26:26)
See also my Reply to Evangelical Critics of the Eucharist and the Fathers
For a study and explanation of the complex view of
St. Augustine on the Eucharist
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