Hominization: On the Origin of Mankind


Hominization: On the Origin of Mankind, and a Story of the Fall by Valter Krajcar, Ph.D.

Here I present to you my speculations about the origin of mankind presented in the form of a short story (with introduction). I hope you find it interesting. I am from Croatia and I have a Ph.D. in physics.

Valter Krajcar, Ph.D.

kraval@net.hr


Introduction to the novel Om

The problem of hominization is connected with the definition of what man is. His Holiness the Pope John Paul II gave the answer that man is different from all other life forms because man has an immortal soul given by God. I found that there are three fundamental differences between man (with a soul) and animals (without a soul):

1. Man has self-awareness.

2. Man has language.

3. Man has religion.

It is impossible to have religion without the possibility of understanding sentences like: "What is the sense of my life? What will happen to me after my death?" So, there must be language to have religion. Also, it is impossible to have language without self-awareness because without a self-awareness it is impossible to understand the simple sentence like: "I am." Here is a word about language.

Many animals "communicate" using a collection of movements and acoustic "words" (signals) to signify some situation, mainly some danger. Does it mean that these animals have souls? Of course not.

In Japan there are monkeys living near the sea coast that wash fruit in sea water before eating. They made this (r)evolution in the last hundred years. For one monkey the fruit accidentally fell in water and it found that the fruit without sand had better taste so it repeated this with new fruits. It repeated and repeated. Other monkeys, as monkeys, started to imitate that first monkey and soon all the monkeys washed their fruits.

Does it mean that they have a soul? Of course not. It is not miraculous that before the last half million years there were evolved intelligent animals, human ancestors, that "invented" and used fire in glacial periods because this "invention" had evolutionary advantage. As Japanese monkeys "invented" fruit washing, in a similar way very intelligent animals (e.g. Sinanthropus pekinensis or "Peking Man" Homo erectus pekinensis) invented and used fire as a source of heat and for roasting meat. This is also an evolutionary advantage because roasted meat is without dangerous parasites or bacterium and those animals were able to eat (roasted) meat from frozen dead animals without danger. They were some kind of scavengers too, and in the glacial period, with insufficient food, they were probably cannibals and probably ate dead members of their own species. About 1.5 to 2 million years ago this hominid Pithecanthropus erectus (or later named Homo erectus) arose but that creature, although very intelligent, was without a soul.

Finally we arrive at Homo neanderthals (or Homo [sapiens] neanderthalensis), which became real men with souls, and they arrived about 200,000 to 500,000 years ago. Adam and Eve's ancestors, the neanderthals, were very intelligent, human-like animals. They used fire, fur, stone weapons, and so on. All this is continuous evolution. Their throat evolved and they were able to produce a large number of "words." They had developed a large collection of word-signals that they used in "communication" mainly in hunting. They were like humans but they were not humans. They did not have three very important things including, of course, a spiritual soul:

1. Although they were intelligent and aware creatures (elephants, whales, dolphins, monkeys have very developed awareness and "intelligence"), they were not self-aware creatures. They thought about fire they made, about stones they treated, about animals they hunted but they never thought about "self."

2. They did not have a language but large collections of very useful words-signals describing different situations and objects like danger, sun, moon, stone, lion, antelope etc. They used personal names. This is also an evolutionary advantage because using word-signals and names in hunting focus the response to only the creature with that name. There probably existed two common nouns, child and girl. Before hunting the boy first received his name from the dominant male, and before copulation the girls first received their name from their "husbands."

Those creatures were able to invent new "words" for proper nouns. They also had many "rituals" to express some situations without words-signals. Their "communications" were only the exchange of signals, not really communication. Conversation did not exist. Language did not exist either. Language is much more than a large set of words. There are nouns, adjectives, pronouns, adverbs, verbs, tenses. Very important are personal pronouns. "Language" without pronouns isn't language. Real language, although primitive, must have pronouns and, of course, the most important personal pronoun is the first person singular. Pronouns are some kind of language inside language, symbols of symbols. As words (nouns) are "symbols" of real world objects, pronouns are "symbols" for other words. For example, for me the pronouns "I" is a "symbol" for the word Valter. Using pronouns is from an evolutionary point of view a setback because using pronouns I, you, he, she, is not clear without the context what is the meaning of "he" is it e.g. Adam, Cain, Abel, or Seth?

3. They did not have religion. Today, many people say that they are atheists but atheism is a kind of religion too, this is anti-religion because people for some reason BELIEVE that God does not exist, but this is a believing "religion" too. A third group of people, for example, many scientists, are agnostics. They are not interested if God exists or not, but they also BELIEVE for example in science, in development, in humanity. They also ask to themselves "what is the sense of my life?" and they try to find the answer without God. In every case, all the people believe in this or that and they try to find the scope of their lives and this is religion in one or another form. Animals don't have religion. Animals are not able to understand the abstract concept of SENSE, so they are not able to understand the question and try to find the answer in religion.

Neanderthals appeared suddenly. They buried their dead starting about 150,000 years ago, so it was easy to find their skeletons. Those buried neanderthals were real humans with souls. Neanderthals before 150,000 years existed too, but they were animals and probably they were cannibals who ate their dead. So, there is a small possibility to find skeletons of neanderthals (animals) older than 150,000 years. There must exist a moment when the first funeral occurred. The first deceased must be Abel and nobody else. It is impossible to have evolution of funerals. There were two possibilities, to eat the dead or to have a funeral. From an evolutionary point of view, the invention of funerals is again a setback because without eating the dead there are more chances of dying by hunger and not to have descendants. The reason for this evolutionary setback can only be religion, or in other words, buried neanderthals were real humans with souls.

If I did not know the Holy Scriptures, the book of Genesis, my thinking would be something like this. Going backward in time different languages will become more similar and will fuse into one language. There will also be extinct languages. Finally, there must be a moment in the past where there existed only one, the first language. In this first language, whether it evolved slowly or quickly, there must be a moment when for the first time the word "why" is used. Somebody must for the first time invent a word with the meaning WHY. This is a very abstract word from the perspective of a word-signal set and there is no simple way to explain what the word WHY means. Those who were able to invent the word "why" were able to invent similar words like where, who, when, how.

The most abstract word is of course the verb to be. But, if someone is able to understand the verb to be, it must have self-awareness, it must have not only awareness of surroundings but awareness of self too. So, if someone is able to understand his own existence it is not difficult to recognise that there must be a new word that will transform his self-recognition into the question: X I am? "X" means, of course, WHY, but there is the SENSE etc. In short, if someone is able to understand his own existence, is self-aware, he is also able to invent a first primitive but real language, not a set of words-signals. In order to develop language there must be real communication, conversation, but how? There must be other persons for conversation. They must understand the meaning of new abstract words. There must also be the need for conversation.

So the big discovery of someone's own existence gives a strong need to explain this discovery to other neanderthals, but how? They know the meaning of the word sun. How to explain that the sun exists? Together with the word-signal sun, the first self-aware man with a soul spoke that sun exists and added a newly invented short word "OM." He explains that sun om, moon om, stone om, tree om, and finally realized that he only repeats known word-signals adding a useless, and for neanderthals meaningless, short word OM. Nobody is able to understand the meaning of the mysterious word "OM." Nobody understood Adam. He went a long way searching for someone that would understand his new word OM. After many useless trials he must conclude that he is someone special, someone different from all neanderthals he met. He knew the deep mystery of his own existence.

What is the sense of this? He developed his religion. He is unique, so there must be a unique mighty and powerful "I am" that awakened him.

Finally, the first man had to find a person that understood the meaning of OM, but he is not sure if that person really understands. The second person understands what the problem is and speaks "X is NOT" where X is an invented new word without meaning. She invented a new very abstract word. Without this word there is no real language, the word NOT, one of the first abstract words that children learn and understand very quickly and easily. For the fast development of the first language there must be exactly two people. They can be male and male, male and female or female and female. The first and last combination are fruitless, a good lesson for homosexuals and lesbians. Today there would not be mankind but only two people (man or woman) and their scopeless talking and language invention. "Man" and "woman" can have children and they learn from the first day together with words-signals and other abstract words of the first language. There will be a big problem when their children grow up. They can't marry among themselves. In reality they can, but today humanity is, in a genetic sense, so different that it is impossible that we are all descendants of only one couple that lived prior to the last 150,000 years. There must be, from a scientific point of view, a second mechanism of new genes entering the human population.

In the Catechism of the Catholic Church it is not explained how new humans arose after the first truly human couple (Adam and Eve). How for example did Cain find his wife? I hope that it is not theological heresy for the hypothesis of how new humans entered Adam and Eve's family tree. It must be mentioned that all children of the second generation and all other generations are really Adam and Eve's descendants. The theological problem is what about newcomers? I think that the explanation is simple. In the moment when some neanderthal recognized and understood the name of God, the meaning of the words "I am" with the help of another man, in that moment he received a soul from God and became a man. Some were perhaps not able to fully understand the meaning of "I am" but they also received a soul from God and became man because they entered Adam and Eve's family tree. I hope that this is not heresy.

For example, there are two ways to become Israeli. The first way is if someone's parents are Israeli, and the second is that someone decides as an adult to accept Israeli culture, religion and belief in one God, maybe because he finds a beautiful Israeli girl. A similar story is how to enter the Catholic Church (by birth and infant baptism, or through an adult conversion, faith and adult baptism). Maybe I exaggerate the speed at which Adam and Eve developed language, but I do this to shorten the story and to explain the problem involved in language development.

To conclude: this is a speculation that there was a first couple (Adam and Eve) that invented the first language, and that they were neanderthals that lived about 150,000 years ago. If Adam and Eve were a real man and woman, not "symbols for humanity," then Cain, Abel and Seth are also real and historical persons. In my speculations I found very interesting the conclusions using the equations: answer = imagination + logic + knowledge (scientific, philosophic and theologic). I tried to connect theological and scientific knowledge about human history in one imaginative but logical short story that is (I hope) consistent with scientific and theological points of view.

In Genesis 2:19 there are (I believe) two hidden items of information. The first is that man is master of all living animals, and the second is that Adam invented new words for animal names. Adam must also have thought a lot about his (im)mortality. He understood that the number of neanderthals stays the same although neanderthals died because new children are born. Neanderthals are immortal in their children. Their immortality is carried by their children. Adam concluded that he could be immortal without children. On the other hand, Eve wanted their son to have the name Cain and Adam found in this name something horrible so he doesn't want to have Cain. Cain was conceived after the first sin. At the moment of his conception he received from God his immortal soul but also the first sin from his parents (i.e. known in Catholic theology as "original sin"). If Cain was conceived before the first sin, Cain would be like the Blessed Virgin Mary, conceived without sin, but this is wrong.

In Genesis 1:28 God gives the command to man and woman: "Be fertile and multiply." If Adam and Eve were obedient then there would be a Cain conceived without sin. Why were they disobedient? Adam and Eve loved each other and they will have sexual relations in Eden. The logical conclusion is that they were forbidden to have sexual relations before, and the command to be fertile was after the first sin. There is a similar teaching in the holy Catholic Church about marriage. If sexual relations were forbidden before the first sin, then the first sin is the breaking of God's "forbidden act." The first sin is not in sexual relations between Adam and Eve but because in this relation Cain will be conceived and one day will kill his brother Abel. And because they listened to the Devil (in the guise of a "serpent"), they thought God is a liar and that they wanted to be like gods (Genesis 3:5). Here also is an explanation why Cain was so bad: because he did not have love from his parents Adam and Eve. They saw in him the reason for their mortality. He was guilty. After the first sin was committed, and the later command was given to be fertile, Adam and Eve accepted other children and they gave to them much love, especially to Abel.

Picture below-right: The hominid family tree (one of several possible interpretations). The right-hand side of the figure shows the documented (solid line) and postulated (broken line) emergence and duration of key hominid characters, as well as the duration of three major cultures as identified by characteristic stone tools. The relationships between the individual species (if this is indeed what they were), as shown by the thin connecting lines, is extremely hypothetical and controversial. The vertical bars indicate the documented (solid) or postulated (broken) life spans of the species, symbolized by depictions of their skulls or skull fragments (from Bones, Stones, and Molecules by Cameron / Groves [Elsevier Academic Press, 2004], page 256).

The hominid family tree (one of several possible interpretations)After the record of descendants of Adam there is the story of Noah and the great flood. The waters of the flood came upon the earth for "forty days and forty nights." Noah, his three sons, and their wives, survived the flood in an ark. "Higher and higher above the earth rose the waters, until all the highest mountains everywhere were submerged, the crest rising fifteen cubits higher than the submerged mountains." (Gen 7:19-20). How is it possible that waters were about 7 meters over all mountain crests that are at different heights? It is possible if the water is in the solid phase! As "six days" in Genesis 1 represents about 15 billion years of creation, so "forty days and nights" could represent many thousands of years when water fell in the form of snow, the last glacial "ice age" period when all the first men (neanderthals) disappeared.

Only a small number of "new men" (Homo sapiens) survived in caves and spread throughout the world in three families, black, yellow and white races in many nations and languages. Noah's descendants domesticate the dog and other animals taking young animals, male and female. This is all in the form of the great flood and tower of Babel stories as explained in the first eleven chapters of Genesis. The records of Adam and Noah's descendants shows more and more shorter life spans. Here again are two pieces of information hidden in that record. The first, shorter life shows that man was more and more far from God; and the second is that the time period from one "symbolic" story to the next story was shorter and shorter until the (non-symbolic) story and history of Abraham begins (Genesis 12).

"Om"  : a story of Adam, Eve, and the Fall

One young neanderthal man was looking at the midday sun for a very long time. He had not been given a name. At one moment, temporarily blind, he screamed full of happiness: "Ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooommmm!" Again: "Ooooooomm!" Finally: "Om!"

Something is missing! He invented a new mono-syllable and cried: "Ig om! Ig om! Ig om!"

He ran to his horde and excitedly started to cry at everyone: "Ig om! Ig om! Ig om! Ig om Adam! Adam om!"

All the neanderthals jumped confusedly with unknown words-signals. What kind of danger is coming? "Adam" calmed down, and with his hands explained to everyone to come close and to sit down. He thought a few moments how to explain his big awakening and started:

"Sun om. Moon om. Stone om. Tree om. Hare om. Lion om...."

Adam continued to speak all known words-signals, he repeated: "Adam om." Then he continued to list the names of all the present neanderthals adding the mysterious word-signal "om." No one understood why Adam repeated all known words-signals adding the short word "om". What is "om" ? Adam was very disappointed. He tried many times to repeat and explain his great awakening but this was a wasted effort. The first man was very lonely (cf. Genesis 2:18).

After one week he abandons his horde in search of other hordes. Maybe someone will understand? He visited a lot of hordes. Sometimes a few neanderthals started to repeat after the words-signals adding "om," but Adam understood that they did not understand the meaning of "om." Adam searched for three years. He thought a lot about the moment of his great awakening and he realised that together with his "ig om" there must be a mighty and powerful Ig Om that awakened him. From the beginning he thought that Ig Om is the sun but later he realised that mighty Ig Om created both he and the sun. He thought a lot about the time before his great wake-up.

He remembered scenes from this very long dream. The most painful scenes were the feasts. Although often hungry, he was not able to eat meat of dead neanderthals. Now he understands why. One day someone will eat him! This is not possible! He tried to understand his own death but was unable to do this. He remembered again his great wake-up.

Adam visited many hordes and he did not find one who understood him. He realised that he is very exceptional. Although outside he is the same as other neanderthals, he knows the secret of "ig om" and his ig om will continue, and continue without end. Nobody will ever eat him. All this Adam thought in images.

Finally, in one horde he found a beautiful young girl that listened to him very carefully. She was without a name. At one moment she opened her eyes wide, smiled and shouted: "Ig om!" Then she starts to list: "Ig om! Adam om! Sun om! Moon om..." Adam was shocked and happy at the same time. That girl understood or maybe not? Maybe she only repeated what she heard? The girl looked Adam in the eyes and she understood what is the problem.

She thought for a long time how to explain to Adam that she is "awake" too. The girl was in shock of this profound notion that she discovered with the help of Adam. How to convince Adam she is awake? Finally she found the solution: "Cain nug om!" Adam was shocked again. Something was horrible in the word Cain that Adam never heard. That must be the name, but whose? He that has that name must be horrible too. Finally what is "nug" ? The girl on the contrary found the invented word to be very pretty. This will be a good name for her son when he grows up.

She started to select from her long dream the moments when other neanderthal women of her horde brought forth young. She felt a desire to give herself to Adam. Again came new images of copulations of the same neanderthal women and the girl discovered something amazing. She thought in images about that discovery and she was filled with enthusiasm. She will ask the name of Adam but not before she explained her discovery to him. After Adam wakened her, the girl will repay with her discovery. How can she explain this?

The girl made a neanderthal's ritual of the female ready for first copulation. She looked for the name of Adam. That was what he wanted more than anything. Finally, he awoke a beautiful girl. Now he is not alone. He will never be alone. He cried: "Eve!" Eve stood up and said: "Lobe!" Then she concluded: "Eve om!"

Now Adam was confused again. There was no doubt that Eve was "awake" but Adam does not understand why Eve refused him after she received the name and what means "lobe"? That word he had never heard. Eve repeated again the ritual and again stopped Adam pronouncing the same word. Adam finally understood what lobe means. Eve was insufficient with just one word.

She said: "Day om hont sun om. Sun nug om hont night om." Adam understood the meaning of words hont and nug. Now he understands the sentence "Cain nug om." Thanks to mighty Ig Om for the horrible Cain nug om. How to explain to Eve that he understood the meaning of the word hont? He invented a new example: "Cloud om hont rain om." Eve smiled and confirmed: "Sa!"

Adam understood that new short word. Eve was now able to say her great discovery. Great, but many times less than her big wake-up with Adam's help. She explained: "Adam lobe Eve hont child om hont Cain om." Adam was shocked again. He liked to play with children and to teach them words-signals. He wants to lobe Eve and he wants that Eve has children. He thought in images and saw Eve and himself in lobe; in the second image he saw Eve, the child and himself; and in the third image he saw Eve, himself and Cain. Something horrible was in the third image. He wanted never to see this third image but then understood that he will never see the second and the first image.

While Adam was thinking, Eve too was thinking about her discovery and she looked at images from her long dream. She played with her fingers while she remembered nights with a full moon which fascinated her to look. She remembered many other images. The images of the last months were the most clear. She remembered that one month ago Haga had a child. She remembered Haga's first copulation. She went back in time and realised something new.

When she finished, all the fingers of her hands were stretched out. Eve told Adam: "Adam lobe Eve hont (here she lifted his hand with extended fingers) moon hont child om." Adam does not understand. Eve took one small stone, stretched out her thumb of right hand and invented new word.

1. Then 2, 3, 4.... until 10. Here she stopped. Adam understood and continued: 11, 12, 13, until 20. Eve repeated this time without help of hands: "Adam lobe Eve hont 10 moon hont child om." Adam was confused how Eve knew this although he found that some connection existed, remembering images from the big dream, but this is not important. Now he was able to say his great discovery:

"Adam om 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 sun."

Eve understood the meaning of these long sentences although she was not able to understood long series of 20s. Adam concluded that the same must hold for Eve because she is awake too and he said:

"Eve om 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 sun."

After that he invented a new long word: "Adam om jotupesodo. Eve om jotupesodo." Eve repeated, exalted: "Adam om jotupesodo. Eve om jotupesodo." They were very happy and overjoyed. Adam embraced Eve. They went a long way toward the east.

They observed other neanderthals that looked confused with a lot of unknown words-signals. After three months they found a beautiful valley with a river. There were lots of fruitful trees and wildlife and they do not see hordes nearby. Here they decided to om jotupesodo.

Eve then wished for lobe. Adam wished too, but on the way to the "Eden" he realised that mighty Ig Om wants Cain om nug jotupesodo although he does not understand why. He was convinced that Eve and he nug om jotupesodo if Cain om. They will die if they do not obey the mighty Ig Om.

On the way they talked and invented new words. They retold to each other many times their long dreams. Every time the story was longer and richer. The first language evolved.

Eve now pushed Adam for lobe. Adam does not want to tell what he realised about the mighty Ig Om forbidding and what the consequence will be if they disobey. He reminded Eve that they om jotupesodo and they can wait 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 sun before they lobe. Eve realised that Adam was right. They have the whole of eternity. They were overjoyed in Eden. However, after three years Eve so wished for lobe that Adam finally said the truth. Mighty Ig Om forbid they lobe. If they lobe, they will die.

Eve cried through tears: "Pejao?" Adam does not have the answer. That night there was a full moon. Eve awoke and looked at the moon. She found the solution and awakens Adam. She told him that yesterday they lobe. Adam was confused. Eve confused him many times. They never lobe. Why did Eve say this? Eve then said a new word. Adam was very confused.

They talked and talked and until now that which they talked about was the same as images from the past. Now Eve said one thing and the images are different. Eve invented new examples and Adam finally understood such strange words that spoiled the whole picture. From now images and conversation are not the same! This does not have any sense. That word they will never use. Their conversation will always be the same as the images. But Eve was insistent. There was another word. Eve again gave a few examples that were the same as Adam's images from the past. Adam liked these examples. This new word they will use but the second they will never use. Eve posed against him and explained that if truth exists then the lie must exist too just as day and night, sun and moon, Adam and Eve.

Finally she explained that just as mighty Ig Om exists and Adam understood when he awoke looking at the sun, there is also a mighty Gi Om that she realised tonight while looking at the moon. For Adam this was horrible. There is only one mighty Ig Om! Eve then asked why are there sun and moon, day and night, Adam and Eve? Adam was not able to answer this question. Although, he again repeated that there is only one powerful Ig Om. Eve told Adam that to him the mighty Ig Om forbids lobe and if they disobey they will die, in some way mighty Gi Om told to Eve that mighty Ig Om is lying. The truth is that they will be like mighty Ig Om and mighty Gi Om because they will teach Cain the language so Cain will be awakened too.

Adam was again confused. Maybe Eve tells the truth? Maybe Ig Om told the lie and Gi Om the truth? They will be like gods! In the morning, with the first of sun rays Eve found a strange light in Adams hair. She looked more closely and discovered one silver hair. Adam looked carefully at Eve and discovered small wrinkles near her eyes. They start to cry. Gi Om told them the lies. Together with pairs day and night, sun and moon, truth and lie, they realised and invented two new words, "good" and "evil" and one more word -- "sin." With this sin they lost their immortality. Cain will be mortal too.

After ten months Cain was born. Adam realised that now that they are mortal, powerful Ig Om desires that they have many children. After two years Abel was born. After one more year Seth was born, and then two daughters, and again a son, and a daughter, and another son. The favorite child of Adam and Eve was Abel. He learned the language faster and he invented a lot of very useful words. Cain slowly learned language. Adam was convinced that Cain does not really understand the deep meaning of the word om. He thought that Cain is like a neanderthal, not human. Eve does not like Cain also. Cain was the cause why she lost her immortality, but after that she enjoyed the other children and especially Abel. Cain felt this.

Cain invented a new word that he never told but he thought about this word all the time. He ord Adam, he ord Eve, but he strongly ord Abel too. One day Adam realised what was so horrible in the name of Cain when Eve said for the first time that name. Cain was gone. Adam realised one consolation in the years after the first sin. His body may become old but there is his ig om that will never disappear, even after death. One day his ig om will be in mighty Ig Om and one day he will receive again his immortal body.

Adam and Eve agree that they will not eat Abel. When they agree to this, Adam found the solution of the problem he had been thinking about for a long time. How to find the husbands and the wives for their children? Neither Adam, nor Eve ate meat at feasts even though they were in his long dream without ig om. He must find some horde and wait for the first small or big feast. Then those who don't eat roasted meat of a child or an adult neanderthal is not a neanderthal but a man in a long dream that is waiting to be awakened. Adam comprehended that a man who does not eat meat now will never eat the body of another man. He explains this to Eve and repeats three times:

"Nug jotupesodo! Nug jotupesodo! Nug jotupesodo!"

Something told him that this is not true. After many generations "new Adam" will come and a very large number of humans will be at His feast. The story now will be reversed. Those who will eat His body will become a new man. This new Adam will be very alive even though a large number will eat His body. Adam wanted to be like Ig Om but he made the first sin. The "New Adam" will really be mighty Ig Om and he will destroy all sins. There will exist a "new Eve" also. The "New Eve" will come before new Adam and will not be his wife but His Mother.

Adam knew that all these words come from mighty Ig Om but without images. He speaks all these years and he learns to think with the help of images and with the help of words, but all of these words he was not able to understand. He thought a lot about this and he told the story of the new Adam and the new Eve to Eve his wife, but Eve also was not able to understand the story. Eve only concluded that their story, and the story of the new Adam and the new Eve is like the relation of night and day, moon and sun.

They covered Abel with flowers at the place where Cain killed him. Tomorrow scavengers started to come around Abel. Adam chased them away. He does not know what to do with Abel's body without his ig om. He does not want scavengers to eat the body and he finally decides to cover it with earth. This was the first funeral in the history of mankind.

After a very long conversation Adam and Eve decided to tell Seth and the other children of the story from the beginning, from the moment when Adam woke-up to the moment when Cain killed Abel. All the children were fascinated with the story. Seth concluded that they would not be if their parents don't first disobey the mighty Ig Om command, so they decide to obey his command to multiply. They were unhappy that they aren't immortal as their parents had been, but they were consoled with the existence of their ig om after their death.

Adam explained to his children one more fact. They are the only men on the earth and they must obey the mighty Ig Om's command to multiply too, but they cannot marry their brothers and sisters. Somewhere there must be men and women in the big dream waiting to be awakened and to receive ig om, to realise that they exist, and that they are capable of learning the first language.

Adam and Seth went a long way in searching for men in a big dream, the future wives and husbands of Adam and Eve's children. They returned after a few years. Awakened men and women passed a long way in learning language but now it was easier than for Adam and Eve because one side knew the language. Adam and Eve's grandsons and granddaughters married. The number of humans grew fast and Adam and Eve's descendants divided into tribes and moved in four directions.

Humans multiplied among them but occasionally they renewed the blood with new genes of newly awakened humans. New species, real humans, Homo neanderthals (with ig om) spread fast and they soon covered Europe, Africa and Asia. Thousands of years passed.

The number of humans increased but food became scarce. The story of "Adam and Eve" passed from generation to generation. Together with humans there were neanderthals without ig om. More and more sparse hunting-ground was divided among them. Someone found the solution inspired by the story of Cain. Neanderthals that do not talk must be killed and then there would be more food.

Later someone concluded that they must kill neanderthals that talk with incomprehensible dialects of the first language. Finally, Cain's inheritance spread to the principle of everybody against everybody. The first pre-flood "world war" continued for thousands of years. There was no time for burying of the dead. A small group of Adam and Eve's children where Europe, Africa and Asia meet were upset by this brother-killing madness. They hid themselves in caves. These were the first new humans, Homo sapiens.

One day a young new human looked confusedly at the sky. Strange small white cold leaves fell down and transformed to small water drops on his hand. These strange white leaves he had never seen in his life.

That was the beginning of the great flood....

The short first (hypothetical) language "dictionary"

om = to be, existence, being o =  to understand Ig Om = God
ig = I, myself om o = to understand existence, human Gi Om = Devil
ig om = I am, soul ho om o = to understand own existence, human hont = then, after that, follows
nug = not sun = year ord = to hate
nug om = is not, doesn't exist jotupesodo = continuously, permanently, infinity, forever nug jotupesodo = never
ho = to have pejao = why lobe = to love, sexual relation
ho om = to have existence, human sa = yes    

Statement from Bones, Stones, and Molecules on the Neanderthals:

By 500,000 years ago, two distinct lineages were evolving in the west. The first was endemic to Europe, which we call the "Steinheim group" (basal Neanderthals), though it is not restricted to Europe alone because we believe that the Narmada cranium from central India and Maba from China also represent part of this lineage. The second lineage of H. heidelbergensis is endemic to Africa, later moving into Europe and even China (Dali and Jinniushan). Later, African demes of H. heidelbergensis gave rise to early H. sapiens, the initial split occurring around 300,000 years ago.

The current fossil, molecular, and archeological evidence strongly supports the specific distinction of the Neanderthals from early and modern H. sapiens. The Neanderthal lineage first appeared some 500,000 years ago, according to the molecular clock, and the fossil record suggests that the "Steinheim group" reflects a basal Neanderthal anatomical condition. This group exploited the colder conditions of an Ice Age Europe, their survival in this region enabled by the increasing development of their "cold exaptations." This initial split between these two groups was not based on a greater ability to withstand Ice Age conditions (though ultimately this must have pushed them farther apart over time), but occurred for some other reason, perhaps cultural.

The molecular evidence shows that Neanderthal mtDNA is significantly different not only from modern humans, but also from homo sapiens dating back to 40,000 years ago. Neanderthals had a distinct pattern of resource exploitation, which includes scavenging and the hunting of large mammal herds and less likely the stalking of individual animals. They also appear to have relied on scavenging to a greater degree than do modern humans; indeed, a number of occurrences appear to be scavenging process sites, while others are associated with large mammal carcass processing. But like homo sapiens, they buried their dead, and there is some slight evidence for the production of "art."

To a large degree, early modern H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis had managed to avoid each other. Early modern humans depended on African fauna for food resources and followed its dispersals into the Levant and southern Europe, while Neanderthals were dependent on a European arctic fauna, whose migration pattern and territorial range expanded and shrank according to the fluctuations of Ice Age Europe. Eventually, early modern people moved into Europe, beginning sometime around 40,000 years ago. And when glacial conditions returned, this time, for whatever reason, they did not disperse south but remained in the region -- perhaps coming into contact with the Neanderthals for the first time.

It is with the arrival of the people from the south that we see for the first time the full-blown expression of symbolism -- mobile and fixed artistic expression, and a more refined template-based tool technology. They appear to have been more mobile, hunting and gathering over a broad area, while the Neanderthals tended to remain in their well-known and long-occupied valley systems. By 30,000 years ago, increased competition, increased mortality rates, and a declining birthrate sent the Neanderthals in a downward spiral to extinction. There is no need to appeal to an argument of "prehistoric genocide" to explain their final disappearance from the earth some 27,000 years ago.

(from Bones, Stones, and Molecules by Cameron / Groves [Elsevier Academic Press, 2004], page 283-284)


Recommended Books on the scientific evidence for human evolution, and philosophical / theological issues

Catholic, Christian or religious perspectives:

Perspectives on an Evolving Creation edited by Keith Miller (Eerdmans, 2003)
Origin of the Human Species by Dennis Bonnette (Sapientia Press, 2003, 2nd edition)
Adam, Apes, and Anthropology by Glenn R. Morton (DMD Publications, 1997)
Bones of Contention: A Creationist Assessment of Human Fossils by Marvin L. Lubenow (Baker Books, 1992, 2004 2nd edition)

secular or non-religious perspectives:

Bones, Stones, and Molecules: "Out of Africa" and Human Origins by David W. Cameron and Colin P. Groves (Elsevier, 2004)
Where Do We Come From? The Molecular Evidence for Human Descent by Jan Klein and Naoyuki Takahata (Springer, 2002)
The Human Fossil Record (volume 1, forthcoming in 4 volumes) by Schwartz / Tattersall (John Wiley and Sons, 2002)
Extinct Humans by Ian Tattersall and Jeffrey H. Schwartz (Westview Press / Perseus Books, 2000)
The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution edited by Steve Jones, Robert Martin, David Pilbeam (Cambridge Univ Press, 1992)
The Search for Eve by Michael H. Brown (Harper and Row, 1990)
Guide to Fossil Man by Michael H. Day (Univ of Chicago Press, 1986, 4th edition)
Lucy: The Beginnings of Humankind by Donald C. Johanson and Maitland A. Edey (Simon and Schuster, 1981)

Valter Krajcar, Ph.D.

kraval@net.hr


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