Facts Versus Falsehood

Charles Chiniquy, anti-Catholic preacher

In 1885, a former Catholic priest, Charles Chiniquy, wrote a book titled Fifty Years in the Church of Rome in which he made many scandalous allegations against the Catholic Church, including the accusation that the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln in 1865 had been the result of a conspiracy by the Catholic Church, and that the assassin John Wilkes Booth was a Catholic who had been corrupted and led by the Vatican to commit the murder.

Chiniquy, who had been excommunicated by the Catholic Church in 1858, claimed that "emissaries of the Pope" had promised Booth "a crown of glory in heaven" for the killing of Lincoln. According to Chiniquy, the assassination was perpetrated by the Church in revenge for Lincoln's defense of Chiniquy in a 1856 lawsuit.

Chiniquy's writings are still widely distributed and promoted, in books and on webpages. The goal of this website is to provide factual information concerning Charles Chiniquy and his allegations against the Catholic Church.

(These three articles originally appeared on Yahoo's Geocities and were preserved by P 9/2009 before Geocities pages went offline).





Pastor Charles Chiniquy, author of Fifty Years in the Church of Rome



IF the person who called himself Father Chiniquy had confined himself to the ministrations of the religion for which he forsook the Church of his baptism, we might have left him unchallenged to give his own account of the motives and circumstances of his alleged conversion. But inasmuch as he has sought to gain popularity and income by wholesale misrepresentations against the personal character and beliefs of those with whom he was previously associated, and his books written for this purpose are still widely used as instruments for the persecution of poor Catholic working men and working women in the shops and factories, those connected with him can have no complaint against us for submitting his past career to a searching examination, even if the result should be to discover facts not tending to exalt his reputation. So far, indeed, we have not taken this course, the difficulty of obtaining the requisite information from distant places having been so great; but so many piteous appeals have reached us from the victims of this unscrupulous persecution, that we have seen the necessity of putting the man's story to the test, and through the kindness of some American and Canadian friends we have been supplied with some materials which, if they do not enable us to check his story at every point, suffice at least to show that he was not exactly the witness of truth.

Before entering on the particulars of his life it will be convenient to consider the general nature of his charges against the Catholic Church and her clergy. And here at the outset we discover a very remarkable development in his allegations. In his earliest biographical effusion, published by the Religious Tract Society in 1861, he bases his conversion solely on doctrinal considerations, and so far from bringing charges against the moral character of the Catholic clergy, he says expressly that there are in the Church of Rome many most sincere and respectable men, and that "we must surely pray God to send them His light, but we cannot go further and abuse them"; nor is there any charge against their personal character in his Why I left the Church of Rome, which comes next in chronological order. But it would seem that the ultra-Protestant palate required something more stimulating, for in his verbose and voluminous Fifty Years in the Church of Rome (1885) he tells quite a different story. There he represents himself as one whom the influences of birth, education, and social connections attached firmly to the Catholic Church, but whom a series of appalling experiences as a child, as an aspirant to the sacred ministry, as a priest, drove in spite of himself to realize that this Church was utterly unscriptural in her doctrines and corrupt in her morals. Gradually and sorrowfully he was led to realize that her rulers were perfectly well aware of this opposition between her teaching and that of the Bible, and just for this reason strove always to keep the knowledge of the sacred volumes from her people, forbidding her laity to possess copies of them, and her clergy to attach to them any meaning save such as was dictated by a unanimous consent of the Fathers, which was never obtainable. Gradually and sorrowfully he was led to realize that the practice of auricular confession meant nothing less than the systematic pollution of young minds by filthy questions, and that the vow of clerical celibacy served only to set the priests on the path of incontinence. Gradually and sorrowfully he was led to realize that the clergy practically as a whole were drunkards and infidels, whose one interest in their sacred profession was by simony and oppression to make as much money out of it as their opportunities allowed them.

Thus Bishop Panet is represented as making the acknowledgement that "the priests [of the diocese of Quebec] with the exception of M. Perras and one or two others, were infidels and atheists,"¹ but as finding a strange consolation in learning from M. Perras that "the Popes themselves, at least fifty of them, had been just as bad."

Father Guignes, the Superior of the Oblate Fathers, tells him "there are not more undefiled souls among the priests than in the days of Lot" (p. 280), that "it is in fact morally impossible for a secular priest to keep his vow of celibacy except by a miracle of the grace of God," but that "the priests whom God calls to become members of any of the [religious] orders are safe." Later he discovers that, so far from this being the case, "the regular clergy give themselves up with more impunity to every kind of debauch and licentiousness than the secular" (p. 308). In Illinois things were quite as bad, indeed much worse. "The drunkenness and other immoralities of the clergy there" -- as pictured to him on his arrival in those parts by a M. Lebel, a Canadian priest who had charge of the Canadian colonists of Chicago -- "surpassed all [he] had ever heard or known" (p. 352), and somewhat later he made the painful discovery that Lebel himself was among the worst of them.

[ ¹ Fifty Years in the Church of Rome, p. 139. All subsequent references are to this work except where otherwise specified.]

Nor were the bishops in the two countries any better. Bishop Lefevere, of Detroit, was a man capable of taking the teetotal pledge publicly in face of his assembled flock, and that same evening coolly disregarding it at his own private table; and his predecessor, Bishop Reese, "during the last years he had spent in the diocese, had passed very few weeks without being picked up beastly drunk in the lowest taverns" (p. 347). Bishop Quarter, of Chicago, is fortunate in not himself coming under Chiniquy's lash, but the latter assures us that he died poisoned by his Grand Vicar, who desired thus to prevent the exposure of his own licentious conduct (p. 352). Bishop Vandevelde, who succeeded Bishop Quarter, is on the whole more leniently dealt with, but "though he was most moderate in his drink at table" we are assured that "at night when nobody could see him he gave himself up to the detestable habit of intoxication" (p. 382). Bishop O'Regan, the succesor of Bishop Vandevelde, and the prelate who, by force of circumstances, was brought into the sharpest conflict with Chiniquy, pays for it by being represented as the incarnation of all that can be odious in human character; and Archbishop Kendrick is represented as having agreed with Chiniquy that "the rapacity of Bishop O'Regan, his thefts, his lies, his acts of simony, were public and intolerable," and "that unprincipled dignitary is the cause that our holy religion is not only losing her prestige in the United States, but is becoming an object of contempt wherever these public crimes are known" (p. 434). Bishop Bourget, of Montreal, is another prelate whose character is aspersed by this man's allegations. In one place we are assured that this bishop, when a young priest staying with his Bishop at the Hotel Dieu in Montreal, was one of two or three priests who so shocked the nuns that the latter said, "unless the bishop went away and took his priests away with him, it would be far better that they themselves should leave the convent and get married" (p. 307). Also, this ecclesiastic, we are told, when Bishop of Montreal, bade Chiniquy to allure into a convent a lady who confessedly had no vocation, solely in order that he might transfer her large fortune into his episcopal coffers (p. 358); and that for refusing to co-operate in this iniquitous scheme he determined to ruin him, put up an abandoned girl to make a false charge against his honour, and then suspend him without allowing him to defend himself.

This is the substance of Chiniquy's indictment against the bishops and clergy of the two countries of which he had experience, and in support of it he brings together numerous facts, or what purport to be such, full of detail and of long conversations, all so conceived as to suggest that the greatest part of the iniquities of these people were either too palpable to need proof, or were attested by the acknowledgements of the accused persons themselves. That a book of this kind should deeply impress readers of the Protestant Alliance type is not surprising. But more prudent minds will note:

(1) that this mass of denunciation was not published till after 1885 -- that is, after a quarter of a century from the date when, with his apostasy, his experiences of Catholic life from the inside must have ceased;

(2) that all rests on this unsupported testimony of Chiniquy himself; and

(3) that the whole tone of the book is that of a man absolutely egotistic and impracticable, absolutely incapable of seeing any other side but his own, absolutely reckless in his charges against any one who should venture to oppose him, and absolutely exaggerated at all times in his language;

(4) in short, that the author of a story which makes out the Catholic Church of Canada and the United States, at the date of which he writes, to be so essentially different from what unbiased witnesses find it to be within the scope of their own direct observation, is one who paints himself in his own book as destitute of all those qualities which predispose a discerning reader to repose confidence in an author's statements.

To this general motive for distrust others accede as soon as we begin to carry our examination into the details of the book. Thus in his fourth chapter he tells us of a secret meeting in the house of one of his uncles, which was attended by several of the leading inhabitants of Kamouraska. Its object was to discuss the conduct of the clergy in the confessional, and the narrator fills six closely printed pages with a detailed report of the speeches then delivered. He was not invited to the meeting, but was present at it in the character of an eavesdropper, hiding in some unobserved corner, his age at the time being ten. We must suppose, then, that this youthful scribe, with an intelligence beyond his years, took down the speeches in shorthand, for future use; or rather, since we are not credulous enough to believe this, we must suppose that all this account of the meeting was pure invention of his after-years, and must conclude that the man was capable of such amplifications and inventions, and of palming them off as truths when it happened to suit his purpose. And this point about his method being established, we may surely suspect him of employing it in the similarly detailed stories with which the book abounds, and in which priests and bishops speak just as fierce a anti-Catholic might wish them to speak, but quite unlike the way in which they are found to speak all the world over.

Nor is it a question here of their speaking as bad men rather than as good men, but of the specific style of the explanations and vindications of their own doctrines and practices which they are made to give. For instance, it is known perfectly well from their theological books what replies priests and other Catholics are taught to give to those who take objection to their Church's doctrine on the lawfulness of Bible reading and of interpreting Scripture inconsistently with the "unanimous consent of the Fathers", on the veneration of our Blessed Lady and the Saints and of its accord with Holy Scripture, on the practice of asking and refraining from asking questions in the confessional, and so on.

Let us suppose, for the sake of argument, that what these Catholic theological books say on these subjects is altogether unsound and indefensible, at least the clergy of Canada might be expected to answer in the language laid down for them in their books, and not in the language which makes Catholics laugh when some composer of Protestant fictions puts it in the mouths of his characters. Yet the priestly characters in Chiniquy's Fifty Years speak invariably like the latter, not the former. And, just as if we came across a traveller's account of a country in which the lions brayed and the donkeys roared, the nightingale cawed and the rooks sang sweetly in the night-time, we should say that our traveller was either joking or lying; so will any intelligent possessor of a historic sense say of Chiniquy's paradoxical account of the sayings and doings of the Canadian and American clergy.

It may be well to give an illustration of what we refer to under this head, and the following is an apposite one (p. 334). Chiniquy had preached a sermon on devotion to our Blessed Lady, and had been congratulated on it by Bishop Prince, then Auxiliary Bishop of Montreal. During the night he professes to have seen how unscriptural had been his preaching, and how opposed to the teaching of the Evangelist, who, when our Lord's mother and brethren stood without, refused to recognize them as having any claims upon Him. It is a well-known passage, and any Catholic commentary would, if referred to, have explained that our Lord wished to teach a lesson to the apostles and their successors in the ministry, of the devotedness with which they must be prepared to subordinate all earthly ties to the service of their ministry. Yet neither to Chiniquy nor to the bishop does it even occur to consider this explanation, and they talk just as if they were two Protestants.

"How", asks Chiniquy, "can we say that Jesus always granted the requests of His mother, when this evangelist tells us He never granted her petitions when acting in His capacity of Saviour of the world?" At which simple, easy question the bishop is represented as seeming "absolutely confused", so that Chiniquy has to help him out by further asking "Who came into the world to save you and me?" to which the bishop replies sheepishly, "It is Jesus"; and "Who is the sinner's best friend, Jesus or Mary?" to which the bishop replies, "It is Jesus ... Jesus said to all sinners, 'Come unto me', He never said 'Go to Mary'" -- the bishop finally extricating himself from his embarassment by saying feebly, "You will find an answer to your questions in the Holy Fathers." Is it likely that a Catholic bishop talked like that? Is it not more likely that the writer who fabricated what he supposes himself to have overheard at the age of ten, fabricated this conversation too, and others like it throughout the book which are similarly destitute of probability?

Nor is the test of self-contradiction wanting to complete our distrust of Chiniquy's allegations. He is continually telling his readers that the Church of Rome forbids the reading of Scripture to the laity, and even to her ecclesiastical students. Thus when he was a young seminarian at St. Nicolet he tells us it was the rule of the Collège to keep the Bible apart in the library, among the forbidden books. But one day, having obtained access to a copy and surreptitiously spent and hour or so in perusing it, he afterwards felt bound to tell the director, his great friend M. Leprohon. The latter, he assures us, was sad, and while acknowledging his inability to answer his pupil's argumentation, said, "I have something better than my own weak thoughts. I have the thoughts of the Church and of our Holy Father the Pope. They forbid us to put the Bible in the hands of our students." Yet in the story of his boyhood -- in which he tells us how he used as a child to read aloud to the neighboring farmers out of a Bible belonging to his family, and how the priest, hearing of this, came one day to take the forbidden book away -- he has to acknowledge that this copy had been given to his father as a seminary prize in his early days.

And -- to pass over such insights as he gives us into clerical life in the order of the day observed in the presbytery of his first Curé, where a daily hour was assigned to Bible reading -- we may be content to set against his later allegations the statements he made on the occasion of his controversy with Roussy, a Protestant minister, on January 7, 1851.

This date, indeed, should be noted, for it means that this controversy took place shortly before his departure from Canada to Illinois, and therefore after the many occasions when, according to his Fifty Years, he had felt and expressed to personal friends his concern at finding that the Church feared the Bible and sought to hide it from her children. And yet on the platform, on January 7, 1851, he talks just as a Catholic priest would talk, except, indeed, for the repulsive egotism and browbeating which is all his own. Take, for instance, the following passage:

"Certain Protestants will repeat that the Church forbids the reading of the Bible by the people. This is a cowardly and absurd lie, and it is only the ignorant or the silly amongst Protestants who at present believe this ancient fabrication of heresy. Some unscrupulous ministers, however, are constantly bringing it up before the eyes of their dupes to impose upon them and keep them in a holy horror of what they call Popery. Let Protestants make the tour of Europe and America; let them go into the numerous book-stores they will come across at every step: let them, for instance, go to Montreal, to Mr. Fabre's or to Mr. Sadler's; and everywhere they will find on their shelves thousands of Bibles in all modern languages, printed with the permission of the ecclesiastical authorities. I hold in my hand a New Testament, printed less than five years ago, at Quebec. On the first page I read the following approbation of the Archbishop of Quebec: 'We approve and recommend to the faithful of our diocese this translation of the New Testament, with commentaries on the texts and notes at the foot of the pages. Joseph, Archbishop of Quebec.' Every one of those Catholic Bibles, to be found on sale at every bookseller in Europe and America in like manner, bears irrefutable witness to the fact that Protestantism is fed on lies, when day by day it listens with complacency to its ministers and its newspapers, telling it in various strains that we Catholics are enemies of the Bible."

This and much more to the same effect may be found in the report of the discussion between Chiniquy and Roussy which was republished in 1893, under the title of The Two Chiniquys at the office of the True Witness.

Again, as regards the question of clerical morality, from time to time we get from him, as it were through rifts in the clouds of his inventions, little gimpses into the real life of the Canadian clergy, which reveal them to us in a by no means unpleasant light. What could be more edifying than the account given of M. Perras's priestly life (p. 133), or of M. Bedard's (p. 157)? True, he tries to cast some flies into their ointment, but there is M. Têtu, the Curé of St. Roch, who was evidently a truly good man, and of whom Chiniquy is contrained to say that he "never saw him in a bad humor a single time during the four years that it was his fortune to work under him in that parish" and "from whose lips an unkind word never proceeded" (p. 169). And there is the young priest, M. Estimanville, who in the cholera time at Quebec was introduced by Chiniquy for the first time to the hospital he was to serve.

"The young priest turned pale, and said, 'Is it possible that such a deadly epidemic is raging where you are taking me? I answered, 'Yes, my dear young brother, it is a fact, and I consider it my duty to tell you not to enter that house, if you are afraid to die.' A few minutes of silence followed ... he then took his handkerchief and wiped away some big drops of sweat which were rolling from his forehead on his cheeks, and said, 'Is there a more holy and desirable way of dying than by ministering to the spiritual and temporal wants of my brethren? No. If it is the will of God that I should fail when fighting at this post of danger, I am ready.' ... He died a few months afterwards" (p. 224).

Nor was this a single case.

"We must be honest" (he writes in another place), "and true towards the Roman Catholic priests of Canada. Few men, if any, have shown more courage and self-denial in the hour of danger than they did. I have seen them at work during the two memorable years 1832 and 1834, with a courage and self-denial worthy of the admiration of heaven and earth. Though they knew that the most horrible tortures and death might be the price of their devotedness, I have not known a single one of them who ever shrank before the danger. At the first appeal, in the midst of the darkest and stormiest nights, as well as in the light of the brightest days, they were always ready to leave their warm and comfortable beds to run to the rescue of the sick and dying" (p. 166).

These admissions, wrung as it were from the traducer of his brethren, may serve to show that the clergy of Canada were not so unlike the clergy elsewhere. That there should be tares among the wheat is always to be expected, and Chiniquy, as we shall see, was his own greatest argument to prove that they were not both wanting in Canada and the United States. But in the first generation of Christian clergy, who received their Master Himself, the proportion of tares to wheat was one in twelve. We may trust that it has never been anything like as high since, nor is there any reason to suppose it was anything like as high among the clergy in whose ranks Chiniquy lived and worked.

But what about the bishops whom Chiniquy represents as such utter monsters? We must refer the reader to Mr. Gilmary Shea's History of the Catholic Church in the United States for an account of the two bishops of Detroit, Bishops Rese and Lefevre, who were evidently quite unlike what we might gather from Fifty Years in the Church of Rome.

Nor, as Chiniquy has little to tell against Bishop Vandevelde, need we say more than that, as we have ascertained from well-informed correspondents, he was a little weak in his government, perhaps, but was a thoroughly good and conscientious man, and by no means likely to have had a habit of secret tippling. Bishop Bourget of Montreal and Bishop O'Regan of Chicago were the prelates who had to do most of the unpleasant work in restraining Chiniquy, and were, therefore, his pet aversions. What is to be said of them? Bishop Bourget, so far being a harsh, inconsiderate, unscrupulous and mendacious character, was a prelate who left a deep and lasting impression on the Canadians by reason of his very remarkable holiness of life. He was a man of the most delicate charity and tenderness, quite incapable of doing the smallest injustice even to the most guilty, and when compelled to punish ever anxious to make the way of penitence and restoration easy for the offender. Indeed, so eminent was Bishop Bourget for his virtues that his contemporaries looked forward to the possibility of his being beatified some day. And we may add that the letters written by him in this Chiniquy case, of which we have copies now lying before us, all bear out this estimate of his character. They breathe throughout a spirit of the most exquisite conscientiousness and charity.

About Bishop O'Reagan, Mr. Gilmary Shea gives us the following facts. He was born at Lavelloc, in County Mayo [in Ireland], and was educated at Maynooth. Archbishop McHale made him Professor of Holy Scripture at St. Jarlath's College. He came to St. Louis in 1849 at the request of Archbishop Kendrick, to be head of the Seminary at Carondelet. When he received the Bulls (appointing him to the see of Chicago) he sent them back, saying that he was a college man without missionary experience; and when he was ordered to accept, he said: "I accept only in the spirit of obedience." He began his administration with energy, and feeling the want of good priests, made ernest efforts to obtain them for his English-speaking, German and French congregations. He introduced system, and did much to restore discipline, but his methods caused discontent, which was fostered by many. Bishop O'Regan had entered heartily into works for the good of the diocese, and expended large sums of his own means for it. But, tired out by the opposition of Chiniquy and some others, he resolved to visit Rome and plead in person for his release from a burden which he felt to be beyond his strength to bear. His resignation was eventually accepted, and he was transferred to the titular see of Dora on June 25, 1858. He then returned to Europe, and spent the remainder of his life in retirement in Ireland and England. He died in London, at Brompton, on November 13, 1866, aged 57, and his remains were carried to his native parish of Confert. Mr. Gilmary Shea adds: "It may be said of Bishop O'Regan that he was a man in the truest sense, single-minded, firm as a rock, and honest as gold, a lover of truth and justice, whom no self-interest could mislead and no corruption could contaminate. He held fast the affection of many and won the esteem of all."

So far we have been occupied with the general character of Chiniquy's accusations, the truth or falsehood of which we have sought to estimate by applying tests furnished chiefly by his own writings. Probably our readers will agree with us that the result has been to show that this person is not exactly the kind of witness who can claim to be taken on his own valuation, and, apart from an external confirmation which is not available, can be trusted implicitly. We must now go through the stages of his life up to the time of his apostasy, to see how far his own account of it agrees with that of others.

To help us in our task we have for the one side his Fifty Years in the Church of Rome, which is the fullest presentation he has given us of his story; and for the other side we have some documents which have been procured for us by the kindness of a Canadian friend. These are:

(1) Biographical Notes Concerning the Apostate Chiniquy, a paper which has been published quite recently: this was drawn up by Monsignor Têtu, of Quebec Cathedral, a grandson of the Hon. Amable Dionne, who married one of Chiniquy's maternal aunts (Document A).

(2) A copy of a manuscript belonging to the Archives of the Collège St. Marie, at Montreal, entitled Manuscrit trouvé dans les papiers de M. le Chanoine Lamarche après sa mort. This paper is an account and a criticism of Chiniquy's life, but is defective, the first twenty pages being missing as well as all that followed the forty-four pages preserved. From internal evidence the writer is M. Mailloux, a Grand Vicar of Quebec, who knew Chiniquy very well in his Canadian days, and was afterwards sent to Illinois to undo the evil lie he had wrought there (Document B).

(3) A copy of a letter dated March 19, 1857, and addressed by Bishop Bourget of Montreal to the "Canadian Catholics of Bourbonnais." It has been transcribed for us from the Courrier de Canada, a Montreal paper, in which it appeared on April 7, 1857 (Document C).

(4) A paper entitled Explanations of certain Facts misrepresented by M. Chiniquy in his Letter of April 18, 1857. This paper is also by Bishop Bourget, and is dated May 6, 1857. It has been copied for us from the archives of the See of Montreal (Document D).

(5) A number of letters exchanged between Bishop Bourget and others between the years 1848 and 1858. These have likewise been transcribed for us from the authentic copies in Bishop Bourget's Register (Document E).

Charles Chiniquy was born on July 30, 1809, at Kamouraska, a town on the right bank of the St. Lawrence, some forty miles below Quebec. His parents were Charles Chiniquy, a notary by profession, and Reine Chiniquy, née Perrault. His father dying on July 19, 1821, he was adopted by his uncle, the Hon. Amable Dionne, who, on finding that he desired to be brought up for the priesthood, sent him to school at the Little Seminary of St. Nicolet. When he had been there three years a difficulty arose. "Owing to a misunderstanding between myself and my uncle Dionne he had ceased to maintain me at college" (p. 66). This is all that Chiniquy himself tells us about the matter, but Document A says: "In 1825 Mr. Dionne ceased paying for him, and refused him admittance into his house, declaring him unworthy of being a member of his honourable family," and the same document in a note says: " I [i.e., Monsignor Têtu] can certify that the Honourable Amable Dionne was an intimate friend of Bishops Plessis and Panet of Quebec, and of Bishop Provencher of the Red River Missions. The greatest sorrow of his life was to see his unworthy nephew, who had always been a bad Catholic, become a bad priest. But that was no fault of his."

We can gather from these words that the fault of which he was considered guilty was an offense against morality. But, after all, he was then only a boy, and two priests, M. Leprohon, the Director of the College, and M. Brassard, one of the Professors -- thinking that he might change for the better and deeming that there was promise in him, took upon themselves the further burden of his maintenance, and so enabled him to continue his studies and afterwards to pass on to the Greater Seminary. Moreover, M. Leprohon till his death, in 1844, and M. Brassard till the time of Chiniquy's apostasy, continued to take a fatherly interest in him, and the latter to believe in him long after all others had given him up as hopeless. On September 21, 1833, he was ordained priest by Archbishop Signaie in Quebec Cathedral, having been incorporated into that diocese. During the next few years he was assistant priest in three parishes in succession, but in 1838 he was made Curé of Beauport, a suburb of Quebec, and it was there that he inaugurated the temperance movement which brought him into great prominence. In 1842 he was transferred to his native place, Kamouraska, in the first instance as administrator under the now aged M. Varin, and shortly after as his successor.

This was the place of residence of his uncle Dionne, who was by no means glad to have him in the neighbourhood. His own account is that he signalized his tenure of office at Kamouraska by great doings which won for him the attachment of the people; still, he cannot deny that there was a strong party against him. And Mgr. Têtu's Document tells us that, whilst in that place, "he scandalized many families by his bad conduct," and that "it is absolutely certain that his uncle, Amable Dionne, forbade him to enter his house, and that many parents sent their children to confession to the neighbouring parishes, to protect them from the baneful contact of their Curé." He remained at Kamouraska till 1846, when one Sunday in September he astonished the congregation by announcing that he was leaving the place to join the Novitiate of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate at Longeuil. What was the reason?

In his Fifty Years he tells us that the ghastly spectacle of an all-pervading priestly immorality made him desire to fly to a place of refuge where he was assured it did not enter (p. 280). In his announcement to his people during the High Mass -- we learn from M. Mailloux (Document B), who tells us he has good authority for what he says -- he declared that he had long felt drawn to the religious life, but had resisted the call, which he could do no longer; besides it was bad for his soul to be so loved, honoured, and venerated as he was by his flock at Kamouraska. It was whispered, however, that there was another reason of a different kind which had most to do with the sudden change. "In 1846," says Document A, "tradition relates that he was caught in the very act of a sin against morals, and was thereupon obliged to leave the diocese of Quebec." This document acknowledges that the archives of Archbishop's House in Quebec contain no official document regarding the crime (which, if Chiniquy by leaving at once avoided a formal trial, there need not have been). But that there was some ground for the suspicion is implied in allusions to it in a private letter contained in Document E. On May 21, 1848, his faithful friend, M. Brassard, always so difficult to convince of the faults of his protégé, wrote to Bishop Bourget of Montreal a letter in which he begs the bishop to allow Chiniquy to be his locum-tenens for a short time at Longeuil, and, whilst endeavouring to forestall the bishop's probable objections, says: "I have reason for thinking that his bad conduct [mauvaise histoire] at Kamouraska is only known to his superiors and perhaps to one or two priests, for my brother the doctor, an intimate friend of the late J. Bte. Tache and of M. Dionne, the sworn enemies of M. Chiniquy, told me two years ago that these gentlemen could not refuse M. Chiniquy a certificate of morality, and that he himself, at that time a sworn enemy of priests, had only to reproach him with an excess of zeal. Besides, it seems to me that M. Chiniquy has paid heavily for his fault."

For whatever motives, he joined the Oblates at their house at Longeuil, in the diocese of St. Hyacinthe, and at the time they seem to have thought themselves fortunate in the acquisition of so famous a preacher, "the most eminent priest in the diocese of Quebec," as the Père Honorat described him to M. Mailloux, (Doc. B). But they soon had occasion to change their minds about his fitness for their life, and he parted with them -- or they with him -- after a thirteen months' sojourn under their roof. According to his own account "when he pressed them to his heart for the last time, he felt the burning tears of many of them falling on his checks ... for they loved him and he loved them " (p. 312). And yet, as M. Mailloux tells us in his Notes (Doc. B), "he carried away with him from the Oblates a paper in which he painted them in the worst colours," a paper which M. Mailloux, to whose house he went that some day, "refused to receive from his hands, accompanying his refusal with words which M. Chiniquy would not be able to forget." What the nature of this portraiture of the Oblate Fathers - a portraiture in the truth of which M. Mailloux evidently disbelieved - may have been, we may perhaps judge from what he says about them in his Fifty Years (p. 306).

Now that he was free from the Oblates his natural course was to return to his own diocese of Quebec, and ask for another post. But M. Mailloux tells us that "to give him one there could not be thought of." Apparently that diocese had had enough of him, either because of the circumstances known to them in connection with his leaving Kamouraska, or because of his general intractability.

Nor would the Bishop of Montreal give him a fixed post, and he was forced to seek hospitality with his old friend M. Brassard, then Curé of Longeuil, the parish in which was the Oblate House he had just quitted. M. Brassard suggested that he should give up the idea of stationary work, and devote himself wholly to temperance missions, and for this he managed to obtain permission from Bishop Bourget.

It was in this work during the next four years that Chiniquy acquired what was certainly the best distinction of his life. He was most extravagant in his language and reckless in his statements, so much so as to elicit from Mgr. Bourget some prudent admonitions. But he had undoubtedly a gift of fiery though undisciplined eloquence and could appeal with effect to the sensibility of his hearers. Nor, though the effects, according to his own acknowledgements, were not as lasting as they might have been had he been more solid and prudent in his advocacy and had he relied more on spiritual and less on merely secular motives, did he fail to do an amount of good to which even those whom he most abused generously testify. Thus M. Mailloux writes of him at this time (Doc. B): "No one in the country can deny that by his sermons on behalf of temperance he has dried many tears; he has brought back peace and happiness to a great many families; he has raised from the gutter many thousands of his unfortunate countrymen; and has set a mark of dishonour on the mania for drinking and getting intoxicated at weddings, meals, family feasts, friendly gatherings, in short in the social relations of the Canadians."

The year 1851 now drew on, and it proved to be an eventful year for Chiniquy's fortunes. According to his own account (p. 345), he received from Bishop Vandevelde of Chicago a letter dated December 1, 1850, in which, addressing him (on the envelope) as the "Apostle of Temperance," he invited him to abandon Canada and put himself at the head of a vast immigration of Canadians which the Bishop wanted to draw into the as yet uncolonised parts of Illinois, south of Kankakee. In this way they would be preserved from the temptations of the cities and their Protestantism, and would be kept together in communities apart, and so become one day a great political force in the United States. Only, the proposal was to be kept for the present a secret, as the Canadian bishops in their selfishness would oppose a movement, however beneficial in itself, which could not but reduce the population of their own parishes.

Whether Bishop Vandevelde ever wrote such a letter may be doubted, for the style as Chiniquy gives it in his book is suspiciously like his own, nor is it likely that the bishop would have made this discreditable request for secrecy to the prejudice of his episcopal brethren in Canada. Still, it is true that the Bishop of Chicago did wish, not to entice Canadian colonists into his diocese, but to divert those who were streaming in unasked, from the cities to the new lands to the south, and that he wanted some Canadian priests to take the spiritual charge of them. But so far from wishing to keep this desire secret from the Canadian bishops, he had written a letter - the text of which is before us (Doc. E) - on March 4, 1850, to Mgr. Bourget of Montreal. In it he lays his trouble before that prelate, and begs for a Canadian priest or two in most moving terms. Possibly it was as the result of this letter that M. Lebel, of Kamouraska, was sent, and so came to be stationed in Chicago when Chiniquy afterwards arrived.

Anyhow, there is no mention of Chiniquy in this letter from Bishop Vandevelde to Bishop Bourget. He went, however, in May, 1851, to Illinois to give a temperance mission to the Canadians there, and took with him a letter from Bishop Bourget, dated May 7, 1851, in which the latter asks Bishop Vandevelde to "regard M. Chiniquy as his own priest all the time he is doing work in his diocese," adding, in the humble and tender tone which characterizes all the letters of that truly saintly man: "I trust that his fervent prayers will draw down upon his ministry the copious benedictions of Heaven, and that I myself may experience some of the fruits of them, I who am the last of all."

It would be a mistake, however, merely from this expression of hope that Chiniquy's prayers might be fruitful, to conclude that the bishop was altogether at ease about him. He wrote him a letter, likewise dated May 7, 1851 (Doc. E), in which he gives him some counsels - namely:

(1) take strict precautions in your relations with persons of the opposite sex;

(2) avoid carefully all that might savour of ostentation, and the desire to attract attention; simplicity is so beautiful and lovable a virtue;

(3) pay to the priests of the country the honour due to their ministry; the glory of God is the best recompense of an apostolic man.

That the last two of these counsels were given in view of Chiniquy's personal temperament is sufficiently manifest. That the rest was also, Chiniquy himself must have understood, since in his letter back to the bishop, dated May 13, 1851 (ibid), he writes: "I will not end without asking your lordship to let me be the first told of it, when detraction or calumny casts at your feet its poisons against me. You cannot believe, Monseigneur, how much harm, doubtless without wishing it, you have done to my benefactor and friend, M. Brassard, by confiding to him in the first place certain things which for his happiness and mine he should never have known. If I am guilty it seems to me I ought to bear the weight of my iniquity. And if I am innocent, and it is calumny which is pouring out its poisons over my soul, God will give me the strength, as He has done already in more than one circumstance, to bear all and to pardon all. But let these empoisoned darts wound my soul only, not that of my friend."

These are fair-sounding words, doubtless, and might be the words of an innocent man. Whether they are so or not we can only judge by taking them in connection with what else we can get from independent sources. But we quote them now as testifying that "in more than one circumstance" Chiniquy had been suspected, and, as Bishop Bourget apparently thought, not always without ground. Suspicion is not the same as conviction, but we shall hear more presently of Bishop Bourget's mind on the subject. Still, it is a point to notice, even at this stage, that Chiniquy should have been so unfortunate as to excite suspicions of the same character in so many independent quarters. His uncle Dionne, and therefore some of his school-masters, had suspected him in this way in his youth: the diocesan authorities of Quebec had so far suspected him as to refuse him further work in that diocese: and now we have Bishop Bourget entertaining similar suspicions of him.

Nor can we in this connection leave out of account another thing that may, perhaps, throw a little light on the unpleasantness of his visit to Detroit, which took place just at this time, namely, whilst he was on the way to Chicago. We have already heard his own version of the contretemps which caused him to hasten his departure from that neighbourhood (p. 349), but an American friend assures us that a version of another kind was given him by the late Very Rev. P. Hermaert, formerly Vicar-General of Detroit. That version is that Chiniquy, who used to visit Detroit on his temperance mission from time to time, had been complained of to the bishop for his offensive attentions to the daughter of a respectable family. During one of his visits he found that the bishop was going to call him to account for his misconduct, and he hastened away before the bishop could return to the city.

He arrived at Chicago on this temporary visit in June, 1851, and went on to Bourbonnais. But he was back again by the middle of July, and on August 13th published in the Canadian papers a glowing account of the prairies of Illinois, assuring the Canadians that, unless they were quite comfortable at home, their best course was to go there to settle, which they could do with a certainty of immediate comfort if they only had two hundred dollars with them to start with (p. 354).

This letter caused a great stir, and induced a great many young men to respond to the advice, but at the same time aroused much indignation among their pastors, who saw, what the result proved to be the case, that the scheme was wild, and that famine rather than speedy prosperity was to be anticipated for those who were caught by it. Chiniquy did not, however, indicate in this public letter that it was part of the scheme for him to be at the head of the emigration, as probably it was not at that time, though it looks as if he were working up towards such an eventuality.

In the account in his Fifty Years, Chiniquy gives the readers to understand that he was going to Illinois in response to an invitation prompted by a sense of his merits, and that he was going in a spirit of generosity, and at great sacrifice to his own cherished objects. "I determined (he says) to sacrifice the exalted position God had given me in Canada, to guide the footsteps of the Roman Catholic emigrants from France, Belgium, and Canada towards the regions of the West in order to extend the power and influence of my Church all over the United States" (p. 353). We have our doubts, however, whether his departure for this new sphere of work was so entirely spontaneous, and even whether it was in response to any invitation at all, and not rather because he had begged to be allowed to go, his position in Canada being no longer tenable. Let us see.

In September, 1851, a very unpleasant thing happened to him. "I found," he says, "on September 28, 1851, a short letter on my table from Bishop Bourget, telling me that, for a criminal action, which he did not want to mention, committed with a person he would not name, he had withdrawn all priestly powers and interdicted me" (p. 363). He went "two hours later" to see the bishop, to assert his entire innocence, and to ask for the crime to be stated and the witnesses made known, so that he might meet them face to face and confute them. But this, he tells us, the bishop sternly and coldly refused to do. Then, after taking counsel with M. Brassard, he went off that night to the Jesuit Collège of St. Marie, at Montreal. It was to make "an eight days' retreat," and likewise to have the "help of [Father Schneider's] charity, justice, and experience in forcing the bishop to withdraw his unjust sentence against [him]." He represents Father Schneider as helping him cordially, and, as his (Chiniquy's) reflections made him suspect that his accuser was a certain girl whom shortly before he had turned away from his confessional, believing that she had come to entrap him, Father Schneider had the girl found and brought to the Collège.

There, in Father Schneider's presence, and under the influence of Chiniquy's firm cross-examination, she owned that "he was not guilty," but that she "had come to his confessional to tempt him to sin," and that it was to "revenge [herself] for his rebuking her that she had made the accusation." This was on the third day of his retreat, and therefore on October 2nd, a date we may find it convenient to remember. When the retreat was over, he went back to the bishop to whom he had already sent a copy of the girl's retraction. The bishop, he says, fully accepted it as clearing his character, and as proof that he had nothing against him gave him a "letter expressive of his kindly feelings," and also a "chalice from [his] hands" with which he might offer the Holy Sacrifice for the rest of his life.

It must be clearly understood that this is Chiniquy's account of what happened, and that he first gave it, not at the time of the occurrence, but nearly six years later, in a letter dated April 18, 1857, which was addressed to Bishop Bourget from St. Anne's Kankakee, and was published in the Canadian press (p. 526). Until then nothing had been publicly known about the story of this girl. The occasion of this letter being written arose out of the schism which by that time Chiniquy had stirred up among the French Canadians in Illinois. We shall understand its character better presently; for the moment it is enough to say that Bishop Bourget had thought it necessary to undeceive these poor French Canadians by revealing to them some of Chiniquy's antecedents. Accordingly, when at the beginning of 1857 some of them, who had renounced their momentary schism, sent him a consoling letter to announce the fact, he replied on March 19, 1857, by a letter (Doc. C) addressed "to the Canadian Catholics of Bourbonnais" which letter "was read out in the Bourbonnais Church on Passion Sunday, March 29th" (of that year). We shall have to refer to this letter again afterwards, but must give a long extract from it now.

"M. Chiniquy sets himself on another pedestal to capture admiration, by pretending that God has made him the friend, the father, and the saviour of the emigrants. To judge from these pompous words one would have to believe that he only quitted Canada for the grand work of looking after the thousands of Canadians scattered over all parts of the vast territory of the American Union. But here again I am going to oppose M. Chiniquy with M. Chiniquy, for I suppose that, even if he refuses to believe the words of the bishops, he will at least believe his own. I am going to give an extract from a letter written by this gentleman, but that its nature may be the better understood, I should say that on September 27, 1851, I withdrew from him all the powers I had given him in the diocese, for reasons I gave him in a letter which he ought to have preserved, and which he may publish if he thinks that I have unjustly persecuted him. Under the weight of this terrible blow he wrote to me on October 4th following this letter: --

'Monsignor, tribulations surround me on all sides. I perceive that I must take the sad road of exile, but who will have pity on a proscribed man on a foreign soil, when he whom he had looked up to as his father has no longer a word of mercy for him?... As soon as my retreat is finished I shall go and embrace my poor brothers and mingle my tears with theirs. Then I shall bid an eternal farewell to my country; and I shall go and hide the disgrace of my position in the obscurest and least known corner of the United States. If, when my retreat is ended, I may hope to receive the word of mercy which you thought it necessary to refuse me yesterday, let me know for the sake of the God of mercy, and gladly will I go to receive it before setting out. It will fall like balm on my wounded soul, and will sweeten the rigours of exile.'

It was under these distressing sensations and in these painful circumstances that he decided to preach the Canadian emigration."

Our readers will note several things about this letter. First, it was written From St. Marie's Collège while he was still in retreat under Father Schneider, and on October 4th - that is to say, two days after the supposed visit and retraction of the unnamed girl.

And yet there is not in it a word of reference to this retraction, nor is what he does say consistent with that story - for Chiniquy certainly does not write as if he felt confident that the bishop would now acknowledge his innocence and reinstate him. Secondly, the letter shows that he was going reluctantly to Illinois, and (so far as he knew then), not to preach, but to hide his disgrace in obscurity. Thirdly, the whole tone of the letter is one of a man who pleads for mercy, not of one who protests his innocence. Fourthly, the circumstances under which it was written imply that he was professing, even if he did not feel, a hearty repentance for an offence committed; since it is evident Bishop Bourget deemed him guilty, and that being so, neither would he have removed the suspension, nor Bishop Vandevelde have accepted him for his diocese, unless he had professed repentance. Fifthly, two other contemporary letters that are before us (Doc. E) point in the same direction. For on October 6th Bishop Bourget wrote to Chiniquy, while still in retreat at St. Marie's, a letter which is apparently the answer to Chiniquy's of October 4th. It breathes the same spirit as all Bishop Bourget's letters, and the reader may judge if it is that of an intolerant despot:

"Monsieur, I am praying myself and getting others to pray for you, and my heart is not so deaf as you appear to think. My desire is that the most sincere repentance may penetrate down to the very depths and to the innermost parts of your heart. I pray for this with all the fervour of my soul, and if I am not heard it will assuredly be because of my innumerable infidelities. O! that I could be free to weep over them, and to bury myself for ever in some Chartreuse, under one of the sons of St. Bruno, whose happy and holy feast the Church keeps to-day."

In this letter the Bishop makes no reference to Chiniquy going to the United States, probably because that project was not as yet arranged. But M. Brassard, on hearing of the misfortune of his protégé, took advantage of Bishop Vandevelde's presence at the time in the neighbourhood, and besought that prelate to give him a chance of retrieving himself.

A letter from Bishop Vandevelde to Bishop Bourget was a result of this. It is dated "Troy, October 15, 1851," and contains the following passage, the only one of interest to us now: "After all the instances made by M. le Curé de Longeuil (M. Brassard), and the promises of his protégé, I consented to give the latter a trial on condition that he got an exeat from Mgr. Bourget exclusively for the diocese of Chicago" (Doc. E).

It will be admitted that these various letters throw on the episode of September 25, 1851, a light somewhat different from that in which it appears in Chiniquy's own published account above given, and there will be something further to say on the matter presently. But we have heard Chiniquy appeal to two testimonials of esteem, a letter and a chalice, which the Bishop gave him as a means by which he might always be able to vindicate his character in reward to the charge brought against him by this girl. Let us now investigate this point.

The letter is a letter written by Bishop Bourget in response to Bishop Vandevelde's stipulation that Chiniquy, before he could accept him, must have an exeat for the diocese of Chicago. It runs as follows (p. 528): -—

Montreal, October 13, 1851.

The Rev. Charles Chiniquy.


You ask my permission to leave my diocese, to go and offer your services to the Bishop of Chicago. As you belong to the diocese of Quebec, I think it belongs to my Lord the Archbishop to give you the dismissal you wish. As for me I cannot but thank you for your labours amongst us, and I wish you in return the most abundant blessings from Heaven. You shall ever be in my remembrance and in my heart, and I hope that divine Providence will permit me at a future time to testify all the gratitude I owe you.

Meanwhile, I remain your very humble and obedient servant,

+Ignatius, Bishop of Montreal.

Chiniquy describes this letter as a "testimonial of esteem" (p. 528), and again as "a perfect recantation of all he had said and done against me" (p. 370). Perhaps an undiscerning reader will be disposed to agree in that estimate of its language; but a Catholic acquainted with the style of an exeat, or permission to leave one diocese for another, will rather take it as a proof of Chiniquy's insincerity that he should thus represent it, for we may be sure he knew better what was significant about this particular document. The complimentary words refer to the results he had attained by his temperance preaching, and it is in keeping with Bishop Bourget's character that, in his desire to say the best he could of the unfortunate man, he should give generous recognition to what stood to his credit.

As he himself says (Doc. D) on this point, "We said nothing too much in adding that we protested to him that the diocese of Montreal would never forget his labours for the establishment of temperance. But all this proves that if we refused faculties to M. Chiniquy, it was solely for a motive of conscience, and for the good of the souls for whom we shall have to answer one day before God."

But what is really significant about this "testimonial of esteem" is that it contains not a word of testimonial to Chiniquy's personal integrity. There is generally a printed form for these exeats, with space left to fill in names and anything extra the bishop may think fit to add; and that there was such an one then in use in the diocese of Montreal may be seen from the exeat Chiniquy gives as having been issued to him about a year previously (p. 324). There, in the printed part, we have the phrase "[Charles Chiniquy...] is very well known to us, and we regard him as leading a praiseworthy life in consonance with his ecclesiastical profession, and bound by no ecclesiastical censures so far as is known to us."

But in the "exeat" of October 13, 1851, there is a significant omission of any such attestation of personal character as would certainly have been inserted had it been possible to give it truthfully. And the Archbishop of Quebec, who, as Mgr. Bourget says, was the prelate whose exeat was needful, seems to have given it on October 19th, in response to the solicitations of Mgr. Bourget and M. Brassard, but with similar omissions. For Bishop Bourget, in forwarding it to Mgr. Vandevelde on October 18th (Doc. E), speaks of it as "not altogether in conformity with your desires," and Mgr. Têtu (Doc. A) says, "The Bishop of Quebec gave him an exeat for the diocese of Chicago without a single word of recommendation." So much in correction of the false construction which Chiniquy puts upon Bishop Bourget's exeat.

The construction he puts upon the gift of a chalice is not less misleading. "The best proof," he says in the letter written to Bishop Bourget on April 18, 1857, "that you know very well that I was not interdicted by your rash and unjust sentence is that you gave me that chalice as a token of your esteem and of my honesty" (p. 529). It proved nothing of the sort.

Chiniquy had professed, whether sincerely or not, that he was truly sorry for the offences which had led to his suspension, and though Bishop Bourget did not feel justified in giving him further employment, Bishop Vandevelde, who was sadly in want of priests, was inclined to give him another chance. Accordingly the suspension was taken off him and, as he was about to start an entirely new mission, nothing was more natural than that Bishop Bourget should give him a chalice -- not, indeed, for himself, but for the mission about to be started and in need of sacred vessels.

So far these contemporary letters convict Chiniquy of untruthfulness, and this may dispose us to doubt whether it is true that, when suspending him on September 28th, Bishop Bourget refused to tell him either the nature of the crime imputed to him or the name of the accuser. Be it recollected that in Bishop Bourget's Letter to the Canadians of Bourbonnais (Doc. C) he says that he suspended Chiniquy "for reasons stated in a letter which he must have kept and which he may publish if he likes."

Chiniquy's reply to this challenge in his letter to the papers of April 18, 1857, was by bringing forward his story of the girl coming to his confessional, and one would like to know what the Bishop's comment on it may have been. We can have it, for the Bishop, who naturally could not engage in a newspaper controversy with a suspended priest, thought it well that his clergy should know the true facts now that Chiniquy was endeavouring to misrepresent them.

Accordingly he drew up the paper we have called Doc. D, and of which we have before us a certified copy taken from the archives of the diocese of Montreal. It is entitled Explanations of certain Facts misrepresented by Chiniquy in his Letter of April 18, 1857, and is dated May 6, 1857. It begins with the words, "These explanations are confided to the wise discretion of the priests, so that each may make such use of them as he thinks desirable." There will then be no impropriety in our quoting from them at this distance of time. The following passage bears on the point now before us:

"M. Chiniquy pretends that we did not tell him for what crime we withdrew his faculties. This is false, for we told it to him with all possible distinctness (en toutes lettres) in our letter of September 29th [? 27], 1851, which nevertheless he cites as if it were to his advantage.

"He pretends that we refused him all means of justifying himself. To this we reply that our invariable practice has been not to proceed canonically against any one whatever except when the accusers were resolved to sustain their accusations under oath and in the presence of the person they accuse. If M. Chiniquy desires to appeal to the Archbishop of Quebec, or to the Pope, he will find us perfectly prepared to satisfy him on this point.

"As to the incident of the poor girl whom he brings on the scene, it is so disadvantageous to him that he would have done better for his own credit to be silent about it. However much it costs us we will explain about this incident, as it is the sole argument on which he relies to create the impression that the bishops are tyrants who oppress and condemn their priests without a shadow of justice. Some time after the culpability of M. Chiniquy had been clearly demonstrated to us a certain girl came to depose against him, who said she would feel an intense repugnance to be confronted with him. This testimony therefore could not, in conformity with our ordinary method of proceeding, enter into the evidence against him. So we contented ourselves with telling this gentleman that, over and beyond all that had been deposed against him, a certain girl had quite recently complained of him.

"Now see what M. Chiniquy does. He confines himself to this fact alone, sends for the girl and gets her to retract. To all this bit of scheming (manège) we replied by pointing out the contradiction between M. Chiniquy's words and his actions, saying to him: 'You pretended that you did not know this girl when I refused to name her to you. How, then, was it so easy for you to find her and make her retract?' And to this he had nothing to reply at that time. Hence what he says now (in 1857) about this girl, namely, that it was she who wished to tempt him; that it was in vengeance that she had accused him, and that he had been able to discover her by means of a certain individual whom he had remarked exchanging a few words with her, is a story which any sensible man will see is made up after the event. Moreover, this girl afterwards confirmed her first deposition, under oath, and it was certainly not from us that she received one hundred dollars for that if indeed it is true at all that she was paid."

We can judge now what were the real motives that caused M. Chiniquy to abandon Canada for Illinois, and whether he has stated them truthfully. Probably our readers will consider that he has not, and that, on the principle "false in one thing false in all," he has created a presumption against the truth of any future allegations he may make, those only excepted which are confirmed by independent witnesses. Keeping this presumption in mind, we must pass on to consider his life in Illinois.

He arrived at Chicago towards the end of October, 1851, and was at once sent on by Bishop Vandevelde to a district some sixty miles south of Chicago. This was the district of Bourbonnais, and there he proceeded to build a church and found a mission at St. Anne, a place some ten miles south of the town of Bourbonnais, where one had been founded already and was under the charge of a M. Courjeault.

Later, he tells us, and doubtless correctly, he founded two other missions further south still, one at l'Erable, one at St. Marie's in the county of the Iroquois. But St. Anne's was his centre of action and place of residence throughout. There he built his first church and gathered round him his chief congregation of Canadian settlers. The first four or five years of his life in those parts were marked by various quarrels with neighbouring priests, all of whom he sets down as despicable blackguards.

But this period we must pass over with just a mention of the charge brought against him by some of his neighbours of burning down the church at Bourbonnais on June 5, 1853, with the motive of collecting money from Canada for the rebuilding fund, which he afterwards misappropriated. M. Mailloux, in his letter of March 28, 1858 (Doc. A), to Bishop Smith, then administrator of Chicago, states that "this charge was made before witnesses in the presence of Bishop O'Regan," and that "Chiniquy never exonerated himself from it." And Bishop Bourget refers to it in his letter to Chiniquy himself of November 21, 1853 (Doc. E): "I will tell you now that the report which is current here [in Montreal] is that money sent you from Montreal for your churches does not reach its destination, but is kept back by you for your own use. If this were the case Montreal would cease to aid you in that way."

But let us come at once to the year 1856. By that time Bishop Vandevelde had vacated the diocese. The dampness of the Chicago climate aggravated his rheumatism and rendered him incapable of doing his work properly, so he asked to be released altogether from episcopal administration, or else to be translated to some see further south. This, and not any such reason as Chiniquy assigns, was the reason why he went to Natchez, to which see he was translated in the autumn of 1853. Bishop O'Regan, the conflicting accounts of whose character and personality we have already given, succeeded Bishop Vandevelde in the autumn of 1854. If Chiniquy is to be believed, as on a point of this sort probably he is, a state of tension between him and his new bishop promptly arose. But however that may be, he appears by the summer of 1856 to have become most anxious to get back to Canada. For from Bishop Bourget's Letter to the Canadian Catholics of Bourbonnais (Doc. C) we learn that on August 9, 1856, Chiniquy wrote to him a letter in which he begs to be allowed to return to Canada, and suggests a useful work there which he and he only could carry through.

"If" (he says in this letter) "you place an insurmountable barrier in the way of my return to Canada, ask God to give me the strength to drink the chalice of humiliations and sacrifices down to the dregs. For, I will not conceal it from you, one of my most ardent desires is to see Canada again.... The principal citizens of Montreal have expressed the desire to see me again, and their surprise at my long absence. There are sad secrets in the life of priests and bishops into which it would be deplorable if the world were to penetrate."

Which last sentence appears to mean that, in face of the demand for his return by the principal citizens of Montreal, it would be better to let him return than risk the possibility of the reason for his exclusion getting out, and giving scandal. But what was the work he desired to undertake in Canada?

"The sore which under the name of emigration is devouring our people is not sufficiently understood in Canada; or else firmer and more energetic steps would be taken to restrain it.... Of all the Canadian clergy I am unquestionably the one who has had the best opportunities of knowing what this sore of emigration is. No one that I can think of has been able in Canada or the United States to sound its depths as I have done. It is not in an easy chair, in one of the fair presbyteries of Canada, that I have studied the causes and disastrous consequences of emigration.... Further, Monsignor, with all this information I have a great desire to go and cast myself at your knees and beseech you to let me say a word to the people in the towns and villages of Canada on this emigration, its causes, its consequences, and its remedies. This word, the fruit of prolonged studies and solid reflections, would not lack, you may be sure, that force and eloquence which springs from profound convictions and a sincere desire to hold back a whole race of brothers who are rushing rapidly to their ruin. For five years now I have been eating the bread of exile... but believe me, Monsignor, I have facts and arguments, the exposition of which would resound with irresistible force on both banks of the St. Lawrence... and which, with God's grace, might result in a great good, by stopping this great evil. And my discourses on this vital question would be the more appreciated, and would have the more effect, because the mendacious press of Canada has accused me of favouring the emigration of my fellow-countrymen."

This appeal, written in August, 1856, may well surprise us, when we bethink ourselves of the same man's letter of August, 1851, published by himself in all the Canadian papers, inviting the Canadians to come en masse to the district in which he hoped himself to settle, and describing it in such glowing terms that it came to be called "Chiniquy's paradise." But our surprise increases when we learn that four months later, in December, 1856, this same writer reverted to his former contention, and in another public letter to the Canadian press took credit to himself for the invitation to emigrate to Illinois which, when he gave it five years previously, had been maliciously condemned by the Canadian clergy, but which he declared had now been entirely justified by the event. This was in a public letter to a M. Moreau, a Montreal lawyer, the following extract from which is given by Mgr. Bourget in his Letter to the Canadians of Bourbonnais.

"When I left Longeuil in 1851, having for my only provision the breviary under my arm, to run after the emigrants who were losing themselves in the corners of the United States, I was treated everywhere as a deceiver and a visionary, bishops and priests in Canada denounced me as a liar... the papers pledged to the Canadian clergy spread false news about the fine and noble parish of Bourbonnais. And yet, in spite of this fearful combination of hypocrisy, calumny, and falsehood directed against me, I have succeeded in four years in creating all by myself a foundation so fine and solid, with the aid of my poor brethren from Canada, that M. Desaulniers was filled with admiration when he saw it with his own eyes" (Doc. C).

It is impossible, after comparing these varying epistles, not to feel that Chiniquy's method was to say, not what he thought to be true, but rather what he thought would best serve his interests at the moment. Still, it is also impossible not to feel that something serious must have happened between August and December, 1856, to make such a change of tone seem to him expedient. Was it that in August he had grounds for thinking that a storm was gathering around him which he might, perhaps, escape if he could have an honourable pretext for at once leaving Illinois, but that by December the storm had broken, and he deemed his only course was to brave it by taking up an attitude of injured innocence and of revolt? What comes next may help us to solve this problem.

On August 19th, ten days after his letter to Mgr. Bourget, Chiniquy was suspended by Bishop O'Regan (Doc. A). What was the cause? From his pages it is impossible to get any definite information.

In one place the bishop is made to say that he suspended him for his stubbornness and want of submission when he ordered him to leave St. Anne and go to Cahokia, on the banks of the Mississippi (p. 441). In another he tells us he asked the Bishop "to make a public inquest about him, and have his accusers confront him" (p. 439), which does not tally with the notion of an offence so palpable as a refusal to go where sent, and points to some offence of a secret kind, such as one against morality. In a third place (p. 449) he suggests that the suspension was inflicted because he would not give up to the Bishop the property in his church at St. Anne -— again not the kind of offence to establish which required confronting with accusers, and public inquests, since all that was necessary, if Chiniquy wished to justify himself, was for him to say, "I am quite ready to do all necessary to effect the required transfer of the property."

Bishop O'Regan himself is much clearer (Doc. E). In a letter to Bishop Prince, then coadjutor of Montreal, he says, under date of November 20, 1856: "The question of the property in the church had nothing to do with the removal of M. Chiniquy from St. Anne's, or with his disobedience, his schism, and his subsequent excommunication.... I had in my hands all through the legal titles to all the church property which no one could dispute.... I came to this last conclusion (namely, to remove him from St. Anne's to Cahokia) for reasons of urgent necessity which I told him at the time and which he is free to make public [words which distinctly point to some offence against morality]... his obstinate disobedience [namely, in refusing to go to Cahokia], and the excessive violence of his language and behavior obliged me to suspend him; his subsequent schism brought on his excommunication."

And this agrees with what M. Mailloux wrote to Bishop Smith, in the letter of March 28, 1858, already quoted from (Doc. A): —-

"I have lived here [at Bourbonnais] since one year. In Canada I knew Mr. Chiniquy very well. I know what his conduct was morally, but the moment is not favourable to mention it.... (1) Before interdicting Mr. Chiniquy, Bishop O'Regan had received grave testimonials regarding the moral conduct of Mr. Chiniquy. I am fully acquainted with the facts and persons concerned. (2) The Sunday following the interdiction issued against Mr. Chiniquy, on August 19, 1856, by the bishop's order, it was published in the churches at Bourbonnais and l'Erable that he had suspended Mr. Chiniquy from his functions. (3) Mr. Chiniquy having violated that interdiction. Bishop O'Regan had him publicly excommunicated on September 3rd following. Mr. Chiniquy had in Canada, and still has here, the reputation of being a man of most notorious immorality. The many women he has seduced, or tried to seduce, are ready to testify thereunto. Those who in this country [Bourbonnais] have lived in Mr. Chiniquy's intimacy loudly proclaim that he has lost his faith long ago, and that he is an infamous hypocrite."

Chiniquy, as we have seen, resisted the excommunication as he had resisted the suspension, and continued to minister at St. Anne's, capturing the support of his congregation by representing the bishop as having brought against him an accusation which he knew was false and had not attempted to sustain, the bishop's underlying motive being hatred for the French Canadians, whom he wished to drive out of his diocese. It was a great scandal, and Bishop O'Regan was anxious to end it. Accordingly he wrote to Bishop Bourget, on October 19, 1856, asking for help (Doc. E).

"Mr. Chiniquy [he says] has thoroughly corrupted the unhappy people under his care. This has been the work of some years. It was begun long before I came to this diocese, and I know not how it will terminate. The mischief can only be remedied by a few worthy, pious, and intelligent Canadian priests. If I had one such he could do much, as there is a Canadian settlement not yet corrupted a few miles from St. Anne's, where such a priest being located would soon take away most of his followers. This would be a holy mission for some pious, educated, and devoted priest. He would protect religion and some hundreds from the wicked man who now deceives them."

The result was that Bishop Bourget sent M. Brassard, Chiniquy's old friend and patron, and M. Desaulniers, one of his former classmates, with whom, by his own acknowledgement, "he had been united" ever since "in the bonds of the sincerest friendship." The choice shows that their desire in coming was to convert Chiniquy himself as well as his misguided people. They arrived at St. Anne's on November 24, 1856, and by the next day had succeeded so far as to get him to sign the following form of retraction [addressed to the bishop] (p. 515):

As my actions and writings in opposition to your orders have for the last two months given scandal, and caused many to believe that sooner than obey you I would consent to be separated from the Catholic Church, I hasten to express to you the regret I feel for such acts and writings. And in order to show the world, and you, my Bishop, my firm desire to live and die a Catholic, I hasten to write to your lordship to say that I submit to your sentence, and promise never more to exercise the sacred ministry in your diocese, without your permission. In consequence, I beg your lordship to take off the censures you have pronounced against me, and against those who have communicated with me in things divine.

I am your most devoted son in Jesus Christ,

Charles Chiniquy

This retraction cannot be called satisfactory, for it is equivocal in its language, and breathes no real sentiments of penitence. But it was taken in Chiniquy's name to Bishop O'Regan the next day by M. Desaulniers; M. Brassard remaining with his friend, to await the result. The bishop said to M. Desaulniers, "I would prefer that [Chiniquy] should go away without any retraction rather than give that one, and I shall, as soon as he abandons St. Anne's and gives security that he will not return, have no objection to remove his censures without any retraction" (Doc. E - O'Regan to Desaulniers, December 15, 1856, in which the bishop refers to his words on November 25th).

Chiniquy's conduct, when he learnt that the bishop would not make peace with him on his own terms, thoroughly justified the latter's action. Had the unhappy man been really penitent he would have obeyed orders and left the neighbourhood. As it was he persisted in his schism, declaring that he had only signed the retractation as an act of grace and on the condition that he was to be left at St. Anne's, at least as an assistant priest to his friend M. Brassard -- a quite inadmissible condition, of which there is no trace in the text of the retraction. And he even had the impudence and irreverence to say that in acknowledging that his action had given scandal he had acknowledged no more than our Lord had acknowledged when He said "You shall all be scandalized in Me this night" (see Doc. D, which refers to this plea and comments on it). Thus there was nothing more to be done with the unhappy man save to bear with him, and strive to undeceive his congregation, for which purpose M. Desaulniers, at the bishop's request, took up his abode at Bourbonnais; whilst M. Brassard, whose methods of dealing with Chiniquy the bishop found compromising, was invited to return to Canada.

M. Desaulniers found his work hard, but achieved some success in reclaiming the schismatics, for Bishop Bourget told Bishop Baillargeon, the administrator of Quebec, on February 4, 1857, that "Chiniquy's followers are apparently diminishing, and are likely to cease altogether if only a few more priests can be sent to them" (Doc. E); and on January 1, 1857, a number of them wrote to Bishop Bourget a consoling letter, in which they expressed their regret for having been misled, and their readiness to submit in every way to Bishop O'Regan.

This letter was sent by Bishop Bourget to the Canadian papers, and it was in reply to it that the bishop wrote his Letter to the Canadians of Bourbonnais, dated March 7, 1857. This reply was taken to Bourbonnais by Grand Vicar Mailloux, of the diocese of Quebec, and M. Campeaux, of the diocese of Montreal, who left for Bourbonnais on March 20, 1857, to assist in the conversion of the schismatics. As it was read from the altar in the church of Bourbonnais, and was published in all the Canadian papers, it must have been found very disconcerting by Chiniquy, who sought to discount its effects by a letter addressed to Bishop Bourget, which he sent to the Canadian papers. It is the letter of April 18, 1857, to which also we have had occasion to refer (vide supra, p. 28), as containing the first mention of the affair with the girl at Montreal in 1851.

This letter is given by Chiniquy (p. 526 of his Fifty Years) only in part, for, as has been noted, Bishop Bourget, in his Explanation of certain Facts misrepresented by Chiniquy in his Letter of April 18, 1857 (see above, p. 33), quotes as contained in it the words in which Chiniquy assimilates the kind of scandal caused by himself with that caused by our Lord Jesus Christ.

What Bishop Bourget thought of Chiniquy's self-vindication in this letter we have already heard, but it will be interesting, as throwing further light on his methods, to know what his friend M. Brassard thought of it. If we are to believe the account in Fifty Years (p. 529), M. Brassard, after reading the letter of April 18th in the Canadian papers, wrote Chiniquy a letter in which he said "Your last letter has completely unmasked our poor Bishop, and revealed to the world his malice, injustice, and hypocrisy."

Here, however, Mr. Chiniquy seems to have forgotten that, when a man is engaged in fabricating facts, he should be particularly careful about his dates. "When," he says, "I received that last friendly letter from M. Brassard on April 1, 1857, I was far from suspecting that on the 15th of the same month I should read in the press of Canada the following lines from him" (p. 530).

"The following lines" were the text of a letter to the Courrier de Canada, dated April 9th, in which M. Brassard says: "As some people suspect that I am favouring the schism of M. Chiniquy, I think it is my duty to say that I have never encouraged him by my words or writings in that schism. When I went to St. Anne's... my only object was to persuade that old friend to leave the bad ways in which he was walking. I hope all the Canadians who were attached to M. Chiniquy when he was united to the Church will withdraw from him in horror of his schism. However, we have a duty... to call back with our prayers that stray sheep into the true fold."

As M. Brassard wrote thus on April 9th, it is due to him to believe that he did not write in so different a sense on April 1st, nor can this supposed letter of April 1st be genuine, as a letter written before April 1st cannot have been occasioned by a letter published on April 18th. Besides, if M. Brassard had written thus about unmasking Bishop Bourget, it is inconceivable that Chiniquy should have written on April 23rd (Fifty Years, p. 530) to M. Brassard upbraiding him for the published letter of April 9th, without bringing up against him the inconsistency between the published and the private letter. Too much stress, however, must not be laid on this last argument, for we are safe in assuming that the letter of April 23rd was never sent to M. Brassard, and was probably a fabrication perpetrated some twenty to thirty years later, for the purpose of Chiniquy's book. We are practically safe in assuming this, for a real letter is likely to have borne some relation to the facts as known to M. Brassard, which this does not.

For instance, this supposed letter asks M. Brassard to say to the Canadian people what he wrote to Dr. Letourneau, namely, that "they do not wish to know truth in Canada more than at Chicago about the shameful conduct of M. Desaulniers in this affair." But M. Brassard, in a letter to Bishop Bourget of July 10th (Doc. E) tells him that in the early winter of 1856 his advice to Dr. Letourneau had been: "Go with your friends to M. Chiniquy and say to him, 'If you will cease from exercising the ministry we will aid you in obtaining justice if it is due to you, but if you will not we will abandon you,"' and that he further recommended Dr. Letourneau "to get all his friends to abandon him, that finding himself alone he might be constrained to return to his duty."

Besides, we have other and more direct proof that Chiniquy was capable of publishing unreal letters. On p. 441 of his book he tells us that Bishop O'Regan "published to the world the most lying stories to explain his conduct in destroying the French congregation at Chicago," whereas that bishop in his letter to Bishop Prince of November 20, 1858 (Doc. E) says: "I have not contradicted M. Chiniquy's extravagant letters or the advances of his friends in the same matter [namely, the closing of the French church at Chicago, which had got into irremediable debt]. I have felt that these documents contained in themselves their own refutation. These writings purport to be, replies to a letter I am supposed to have written to the Chicago Tribune. But I never wrote or published this pretended letter, nor has any one written or published it for me, save the astute M. Chiniquy himself." That means that Chiniquy had forged and sent to the Chicago papers, as coming from the bishop, a letter in reality composed by himself, and composed in such terms as to make it easy for him afterwards to refute it. And M. Mailloux (Doc. A) has occasion to allude to another public letter written at this same time, December 17, 1856, by M. Chiniquy. It was written to the "Canadians of Troy," and purported to be the reply to an address of sympathy sent him from that quarter. M. Mailloux adds: "We shall see later whether this address of the Canadians was not written by M. Chiniquy and presented to M. Chiniquy by himself. If it was so it was nothing unusual for him to do." As has been noted, the manuscript of M. Mailloux' memoir is defective, and so we miss the promised demonstration which doubtless formed a part of it. (p. 306).

Now let us come to a further, and still more monstrous, instance of his dishonesty in the use of letters. On p. 538 of his book he tells us that on receiving his letter of April 23, 1857 (the letter we have surmised to be spurious), M. Brassard was confounded, and wrote to beg pardon for his untruthful letter of April 9th, which "he had been forced to sign," and in this alleged letter of apology, dated May 20, 1857, M. Brassard is alleged to have said: "My dear Chiniquy, I am more convinced than ever that you have never been legally suspended, now that I have learnt from the Bishop of Montreal that the Bishop of Chicago interdicted you by word of mouth in his own room -- a kind of interdiction which Liguori says is null and of no effect."

With this alleged bit of letter a little history is connected. On June 8, 1858 (Doc. E), M. Brassard wrote to Bishop Bourget, saying. "I have never given any testimony tending to prove that the sentence of excommunication against M. Chiniquy was not signed by the bishop." This disavowal Bishop Bourget sent on to M. Mailloux (Bishop Bourget to M. Brassard, July 2, 1858, Doc. E), then in Bourbonnais, where Chiniquy was still contending that M. Brassard was on his side. M. Mailloux wrote back on June 24th to say that he had been glad to make use of the disavowal, but that the day before (the 23rd) a M. Camille Paré, a friend of Chiniquy's, had brought some papers among which was an affidavit of M. Brassard's, signed with his own hand.

"Under oath M. Brassard declares that a letter annexed to [the affidavit] is his, and that it contains his opinion on the schism of St. Anne's. In this letter M. Brassard declares that Bishop Bourget had told him that the suspension of M. Chiniquy was null because it had been inflicted without witnesses; and M. Brassard further declares that the bishop told him this was the opinion of Liguori."

Naturally Bishop Bourget was perplexed, and called upon M. Brassard for an explanation, which the latter gave in two letters to the bishop dated July 6 and July 10, 1858.

"... If I must be responsible for all that it pleases M. Chiniquy and the inhabitants of St. Anne's to put into my mouth for the furtherance of their cause I can never hope to clear myself. Indeed, M. Mailloux himself would be greatly embarrassed if he were to be held responsible for all that is attributed to him.

"Now let me reply to this latest accusation. I have never written to M. Chiniquy that your lordship had told me the suspension inflicted on him was invalid as having been inflicted without witnesses. Nor did I ever write to him that you had said that this was the opinion of Liguori. If it is my letter that has been shown to M. Mailloux, he cannot have read in it any such thing, and if in the letter that was shown to him he read the phrases I have just cited, that must have been a forged letter, signature and all. As for the affidavit, that was truly signed by me, except for the words that 'it contains my opinion on the schism at St. Anne's.' Let me explain the history of this affidavit. On the fourth of last May, after eight o'clock, Camille Paré came to my house with a letter from M. Chiniquy and one from Mr. Dunn, a Chicago priest who at the time of my visit two years ago to Chicago was Grand Vicar, but (as I have learnt since) is so no longer. M. Chiniquy asked me to make an affidavit acknowledging the genuineness of a letter I had written to him more than a year ago. It was a letter which he had shown to the Bishop of Dubuque, and which he regarded as likely to facilitate his entrance into the good graces of the bishop, but he had been accused before the bishop of having forged this letter, as well as all the other papers he had produced at Dubuque, papers on the strength of which the bishop had consented to send M. Dunn to St. Anne's on on Palm Sunday to announce the return of peace and to celebrate the divine offices. M. Dunn wrote to me at the same time in English asking me to accede to the desire of M. Chiniquy, for the good of religion. It was this letter from M. Dunn which caused me to consent to declare by affidavit that the letter annexed to it was in my handwriting and bore my signature, and that it stated what I thought to be the truth. I wrote at the same time to M. Chiniquy saying that I was giving him the affidavit solely for the purpose for which he had asked it, and that it was not to be published, that it was a confidential letter which I could not consent to have published. Yet see what use he has made of it....

"I see that he has abused a confidence which I have long since withdrawn from him, and that he has even abused the last act I did on his behalf -- one, too, done on the recommendation of M. Dunn, whom I believed still to be Grand Vicar of Chicago. When then I have done what your lordship may think desirable [to put a stop to this misuse of his name], I shall have finished with [M. Chiniquy]."

From this we see that Chiniquy was capable of asking for an affidavit under pretence that it was to attest a genuine letter, and passing it off as attesting one quite different, which contained seriously false statements and which he himself had forged. After this we need surely have no remaining hesitation in disbelieving the many other letters, conversations, and occurrences with which the book abounds, and on which it relies to exhibit the clergy of Canada and Illinois in a detestable light. For instance, to specify some of the more salient points of this kind, we may on this ground reject as spurious the letters attributed to Bishop Vandevelde on pp. 345 and 384 together with the answers to certain questions alleged to have been given by Bishop O'Regan (p. 440); and likewise, the various conversations he is said to have had with M. Beaubien (p. 27), M. Leprohon (pp. 66, 109), M. Perras (p. 136), Bishop Prince (p. 334), M. Primeau (p. 341), Bishop Bourget (pp. 358, 365, 370), Bishop Vandevelde (p 377), Bishop O'Regan (pp. 391, 394, 426, 429, 437), Archbishop Kenrick (p. 434), Bishop Smith (pp. 544, 549).

Similarly we may reject as fictitious the most unlikely account of his various dealings with Abraham (afterwards President) Lincoln, in chapters lix to lxi. Particularly on this ground we may reject the cock-and-bull story of the Catholic origin of the plot to murder President Lincoln, fortified as it is by a palpably bogus affidavit made at Chiniquy's request and for the purpose of his book in 1881 (p. 508).

A simple reference to the contemporary reports of the two trials of the alleged conspirators, or to the standard Life of Lincoln by Nicolay and Hay -— which, whilst exhaustive in its account of the assassination and of the two trials of the accused, does not throw out the smallest suggestion of a religious origin of the crime -- is sufficient to dispel the unsupported allegation of a man convicted of the dishonest practices we have been able to bring home to Chiniquy. Nor does he better his case by invoking General Harris, the Methodist General, who was one of the judges in the military trial of the conspirators. For in the first place, though General Harris, in his History of the Great Conspiracy Trial (1892), censures one or two priests for maintaining the innocence of the Surratts, a great deal of what Chiniquy quotes from him in his Forty Years in the Church of Christ (p. 206) appears to be interpolated into his account. And in the second place, General Harris says distinctly (Great Conspiracy Trial, p. 250), that "the only reference to the Catholic Church had been made in the public press [and] the prosecution had carefully abstained from any assault on that Church." Besides, in 1901 General Harris wrote an approving Introduction to Mr. Osborne Oldroyd's Assassination of President Lincoln, in the Preface to which the latter repudiates the idea that "the Roman Catholic Church ever sanctioned that heinous crime."

We may, too, on the same ground of Chiniquy's proved untrustworthiness reject all that is to his purpose in what he has to say about the Spink trial in chapters lvi and lviii. Some friends have been kind enough to refer for us to the authentic report of this case in the hearing at Urbana, on October 20, 1856. But it seems that only the barest entries were made in those days, and the sole record of this particular hearing is "Spink plaintiff, Chiniquy defendant, cause slander."

Apparently Spink sued Chiniquy for one of the slanderous statements he was wont to set afloat against any one who offended him, and Spink in vindicating himself contended, that Chiniquy himself had been guilty of the offence he had imputed to another. But, as M. Lebel's sister, the person who seems to have declared that Chiniquy had misbehaved with her, declined at the last moment to go into the witness box -— the sort of thing that constantly happens in such cases -— Spink's suit suffered.

Anyhow two things about Chiniquy's account of the case are suspicious -— one that he so mixes the items in his narrative that no one could gather that the charge against him in this instance was one of libel; the other that the affidavit of Philomene Moffat, made in in 1881 (p. 462), sounds untruthful, even if it be not altogether spurious. It professes to testify to an overheard conversation, always a doubtful kind of testimony, and whereas at its commencement it states that two persons overheard the conversation, at the end it states that there were three, a contradiction most unlikely in a genuine affidavit. Besides it is hard to conceive how what is supposed to have happened in bringing Philomene Moffat from Chicago to Urbana, a distance of some 125 miles, could have taken place within the short space of ten hours at most. The railway from Chicago to Urbana had only been opened two years previously. Whether by 1856 it had been so fully equipped with express trains, and whether, again, at that date there were regular evening papers at Chicago, both of which the story implies, we have not been able to ascertain.

We might stop here, but for completeness' sake will give briefly the closing scene of Chiniquy's Catholic life.

Curiously, at the very time when, according to his book, he was so much exercised by M. Brassard's condemnation of his schism, he was meditating another attempt to get reconciled (on his own conditions?). On May 12, 1857 (Doc. K) M. Campeaux, writing to Bishop Bourget from Bourbonnais, reported that "Chiniquy is showing signs of giving in," and two days previously (ibid.) Chiniquy himself had written to the same bishop to say he was inviting Bishop Pinsonneault, of Sandwich, Ontario, and M. Brassard to be his intermediaries with Bishop O'Regan for this purpose. Bishop Bourget wrote him back a kind letter of encouragement (Doc. E) but we hear nothing more of the project at this time.

The next episode in the history brings us to the spring of the following year, 1858. During the interval Bishop O'Regan went to Rome, probably on his official visit ad limina. As the visit terminated in his translation to the titular see of Dora, it was in accordance with Chiniquy's style that he should claim to have obtained his deposition by representations made to the Holy See and to the Emperor Napoleon (p. 540); but Mr. Gilmary Shea's account sounds more probable. His successor at Chicago was Bishop Duggan, who, however, did not get his Bulls till January 21, 1859, though he was named administrator in the summer of 1858. Bishop Smith, of Dubuque, was appointed administrator of the see of Chicago during the interval. Hence it was with Bishop Smith that Chiniquy had to deal in 1858.

According to Fifty Years, Mr. Dunn -- formerly Grand Vicar of Chicago -- who apparently was of Chiniquy's party, arrived at St. Anne's on March 11, 1858, with the news of Bishop Smith's appointment. He is represented as having been sent by the bishop to invite Chiniquy to send in his submission, and the bishop is made to say a good deal to the discredit of Bishop O'Regan which probably he did not say. Indeed, it looks as if the initiative was taken by Chiniquy, with the object of rushing the administrator, who could as yet have had insufficient time to sift his case.

Anyhow, Chiniquy went with Mr. Dunn to Dubuque on March 25th, and signed an act of retractation, which the bishop seems to have accepted, and on the basis of which he authorised Mr. Dunn to go back with Chiniquy to St. Anne's and announce the reconciliation of congregation and pastor on Palm Sunday, which that year fell on March 28th. We may presume that this did happen, though we do not feel certain, having only Chiniquy's testimony to go by. Nor for the same reason can we feel certain that his act of submission was worded as he gives it in his book, namely, "We promise to obey the authority of the Church according to the commandments of God as we find them expressed in the Gospel of Christ." Such a form may be innocent, in itself, but is evidently intended to lend to quibbling, by enabling the person signing it to say, whenever he wished to disobey, that he did not find that particular order in Scripture; nor is it likely that Bishop Smith would have accepted so equivocal a document. Moreover, now that we know how little trust can be reposed in Chiniquy's assertions, we may doubt whether there was any tendency to Protestantism in him until the day, not then arrived, when he found it convenient to exploit Protestant credulity for reasons of bread and butter.

What is certain is that on March 27, 1858, he wrote (Doc. A) to M. Mailloux, then at Bourbonnais, as follows: "I am happy to inform you that I have made my peace with our good Bishop Smith, administrator of the diocese. The Reverend Mr. Dunn will be with me at noon, at your residence, to dine with you, and deliver into your hands my act of submission. Meanwhile, help me to thank God for having put an end to these deplorable divisions. And believe me your devoted servant, Charles Chiniquy, Missionary of St. Anne's."

This looks as if the Bishop of Dubuque was not altogether satisfied with the act of submission, and had it submitted to M. Mailloux that he might report on it. M. Mailloux wrote back (Doc. A) to the bishop on the following day (March 28) in terms which show that he thought the bishop was in danger of being taken in by Chiniquy through imperfect knowledge of his previous career. Hence he gives the substance of his bad record from his Canadian days onward, as may be seen from the two salient passages that have been already quoted from this letter.

The next we hear of Chiniquy was from St. Joseph, Indiana, where he went to make the retreat which is sure to have been one of the stipulated conditions of reconciliation. From his Fifty Years we see that he realized that M. Mailloux was doubtful about the sincerity of his depositions, and was warning the bishop to be careful; and Mgr. Têtu in his Notes has preserved for us another letter written to M. Mailloux by Chiniquy from this place of retreat.

"In April, 1858," he says, "Chiniquy wrote to M. Mailloux that he was making a retreat and sued for peace. 'You know,' he said, 'how weak and sinful I am. Ah! do not make me still weaker and more sinful by driving me to despair.'" Another illustration of the different language which the unfortunate man held in private from that which he ascribes to himself in his book!

This letter of "April" must have been written at the beginning of April. At least it must have been if Chiniquy is telling the truth when he says that he was recalled from his retreat on April 6th, and went back at once to see the bishop at Dubuque. In his account of this interview he tells us that the bishop took back the previously accepted act of submission, and demanded another expressed in more absolute terms. This, he tells us, he refused to give, and hence was told he "could no longer be a Roman Catholic priest" (p. 551).

Then he went to his hotel, where, according to his own tragic account, after spending some time in an agony of distress over his abandoned position, just in the nick of time -- when, having made himself impossible to every Catholic bishop, he must needs seek elsewhere for some means of living -- the light from Heaven dawned upon him, and he saw clearly that the Church of Rome was false and that salvation was with the Protestants. Then he went back to his flock at St. Anne's, and on Sunday, April 11th, told them of the treatment he had experienced from the bishop, and of the subsequent light from on high which had come to deliver him. To his delight he found that his whole congregation was prepared to secede with him.

It all sounds most beautiful in his pages, but once more there are some considerations which make us a little skeptical as to whether it happened, at all events at this time. For according to M. Brassard's letter of July 6th, M. Camille Paré came to him on May 4th -- that is, three weeks later than this supposed conversion of Chiniquy to Protestantism -- and brought a message from Chiniquy asking for an affidavit, "which he regarded as likely to facilitate his entrance into the good graces of the bishop."

Moreover, as late as June 23rd this Camille Paré, still acting on behalf of Chiniquy, was using this very affidavit to palm off the spurious letter on M. Mailloux. Indeed, M. Brassard's letters to Mgr. Bourget may be cited as proving that as late as July 10th no news of Chiniquy's final separation from the Church and conversion to Protestantism had reached the writer, who evidently thinks that he is still keeping up his pretense that his faculties as a Catholic pastor are intact through not having been withdrawn by any valid excommunication.It would appear, then, that Mgr. Têtu's Notes (Doc. A) are nearer the truth when they tell us:

"The unfortunate man was not converted. On August 3, 1858, Bishop Duggan, of Chicago, excommunicated him publicly and in the presence of an enormous crowd. Such was the end of an ignoble comedy: Chiniquy after that could no longer call himself a Catholic. He would have liked to continue to retain the name in order to glut his passions and to command in the Church. It was not he who left the Church; it was the Church who rejected him from her bosom. It was then that he declared himself a Protestant and endeavoured to maintain in heresy and schism all the souls he had perverted. The Canadian missionaries soon set at naught his wiles and deceit. Nearly all the families that had gone astray returned to the fold."

When thus cut off from the Catholic Church his first idea seems to have been to keep his followers together as an independent religious body under the name of "Catholic Christians." But, in striking agreement with his letter of August 9, 1856, and in equally striking contradiction with his published glorifications of the fertility of his settlement, they found before many months were passed that they were in the midst of a financial crisis.

This appears from a letter he wrote on September 28, 1859, to Dr. Hellmuth, at that time Protestant Dean of Quebec (see Father Chiniquy's Reformation in the Far West, reprinted from the Record, B. M. press-mark, 4183 aa. 12). The letter is a cry of distress in face of the "awful calamity" which is "rapidly destroying the noble band of new converts," who "cannot last out much longer."

"Before next spring the Church of Rome will exult over our ruins. We will succumb, not because our new brothers and sisters have no charity, but because there is a want of unity in their charity. You are the only one in Canada who takes any interest in this glorious religious movement. Last year some had shown us some goodwill, they had extended to us a helping hand, but now we do not hear a word from them."

Probably it was for this reason that they quickly discovered that "unless we joined one of the Christian denominations of the day we were in danger of forming a new sect" (p. 571), and so were formally received into the Presbyterian Church of the United States by the Presbytery of Chicago on April 15, 1860 (p. 571).

But how long did he remain with these people? M. Mailloux (Document B) tells us that "not having been able to retain the place which the Presbyterian ministers of the United States had given him among them, because they turned him out of their society, as we shall see later" (namely, in the later part of his manuscript, which is unfortunately lost), "the unfortunate M. Chiniquy had to come and unite himself with those whom he had confounded on January 7, 1851" -- that is, with M. Roussy, and the Presbytery of Montreal. Why was he thus dismissed?

In the days of his lecturing campaign he was often challenged to deny, if possible, that in 1862, after a visit to Europe, during which he had made collections for a supposed seminary in Chicago, he was accused of fraud, and rejected or expelled by the Chicago Synod. He never ventured to take up this challenge, but a passage in his Fifty Years (p. 472) is interesting in this connection. In it he narrates that "through the dishonest and false reports of those two men the money I had collected [for the said seminary]... was retained nearly two years, and lost in the failure of the New York Bank; [and] the only way we found to save ourselves from ruin was to throw ourselves into the hands of our Christian brothers of Canada" -- of Canada, be it noticed, not of Chicago -- [by whom] "our integrity and innocence were publicly acknowledged, and we were solemnly and officially received into the Presbyterian Church of Canada on the 11th of June, 1863."

It is easy here to read between the lines that a charge of dishonesty had been brought against him, one of the same kind as eight years previously had been brought against him in connection with the burning of the Bourbonnais church.

It was his misfortune to be continually having charges of the same kind brought against him from different and independent quarters. However, on January 10, 1864, he gave what his new friends doubtless regarded as a signal proof of the soundness of his Protestantism, for on that day he married his housekeeper.

Still, how did they find him in the matter of personal character? His egotism and violence are conspicuous in all that he spoke or wrote against his former co-religionists; were they entirely absent from his relations with his new friends?

We are never likely to be told, but we cannot read without musing such cryptic allusions as the following in the sermons preached at the time of his decease: "We saw thy faults when thou were with us, but now we see thy virtues," said the Rev. A. J. Mowatt on the Sunday after his funeral (Forty Years in the Church of Christ, p. 497). What faults, we ask?

"He had failings, yes, and who is without these? Those with which he could in a special manner be reproached must be charged to the inadequate and positively harmful clerical education he had received, and which in after years he so vigorously combated," said the Rev. C. E. Amaron, preaching at the graveside on January 19, 1899 (ibid., p. 486).

"On leaving home for more advanced and literary and theological studies, he entered upon a course of training much of which he afterwards deplored. Possibly some of his best friends were right in thinking that they saw occasionally traces of this bad education in his after-life," says his son-in-law in the Preface to this same book. What were these special faults, one wonders?

Of course we are aware that bigots of this type, when they pick up eagerly, but to their cost, the weeds which the Pope has thrown over his wall, find it convenient to ascribe their noxious properties to the defects of the Pope's soil. We are aware, too, what are the particular noxious properties which Chiniquy in his writings finds it convenient to debit to the Pope's soil. Was it to matters of this sort that the preachers and the Preface-writer were thus dimly alluding?

In this connection we may say that the Catholic Truth Society cannot undertake a refutation of Chiniquy's book entitled The Priest, the Woman, and the Confessional.

To write or to circulate such a work, which cannot fail to pollute the minds of its readers, is an outrage upon decency, and it would be impossible to deal with it in a pamphlet intended for general circulation. The reader will accept our assurance that in it Chiniquy has employed the same methods of misrepresentation and misstatement which have been exposed in the foregoing pages.


(The foregoing online version of the above essay has been published through the collaborative efforts of Jim Goodluck, Lane Core Jr., Sue Sims and Antoine Valentim.)


Fr. Charles Chiniquy, Catholic priest Pastor Charles Chiniquy, anti-Catholic preacher  

Charles Chiniquy, Catholic priest versus Charles Chiniquy, anti-Catholic preacher


Most people today have never heard of Charles Chiniquy. However, between 1885 and 1899, he was one of the most famous men alive.

Chiniquy was an excommunicated former Catholic priest who became famous in 1885 when he published a book, Fifty Years in the Church of Rome, which made numerous scandalous accusations against the Catholic Church and its leaders. He thereafter earned his living by giving speeches and writing books and pamphlets attacking the Church.

Charles Chiniquy was born in 1809 in Kamouraska, Quebec. He was baptised and raised a Catholic. By all accounts, he was then very devout in his faith.

Later, as a young man, he felt called to become a priest. Chiniquy became a student at the Petit Séminaire (Little Seminary) in Nicolet, Quebec, from which he graduated a few years later. He was ordained a Catholic priest in 1833.

In the following years, Chiniquy was an assistant priest and later a pastor at various parishes in Canada and in the United States. During the 1840s, he led a very successful campaign throughout Quebec against the evils of alcohol and drunkenness. This was unquestionably the high point of his career as a priest.

In 1851, a Baptist minister named Louis Roussy agreed to participate in a public debate against Chiniquy on the subject the Catholic Church and the Bible. At the time of this debate, Chiniquy was still a Catholic priest, and, in the words of the late Rev. Sydney Smith, "he talks just as a Catholic priest would talk, except for the repulsive egotism and browbeating which is all his own."

Roussy was a Swiss immigrant and a leader of a Protestant missionary society. According to the records of this society, "a decisive motivation" of the organization was the conversion of Catholics to Protestantism.

Chiniquy, later the same year, published a transcript of the debate. It was distributed widely in Canada in the 1850s.

The text of this document is reproduced on the following page. It is a clever piece of work, and although not very deep, it is nonetheless remarkable for the clearness in which Catholic principles are set forth and defended.

Sadly, a few years later, Chiniquy committed a series of acts of immorality and other unfortunate wrongdoing, which ultimately led to his excommunication from the Catholic Church in 1858. The reasons for this excommunication are discussed, in detail, in the essay Pastor Chiniquy (by the same Rev. Sydney Smith, quoted above).

Not long afterwards, Chiniquy became a member of the Presbyterian church. He was ordained as a minister in 1860.

Chiniquy spent the remainder of his life making inflammatory speeches and publishing derogatory books and pamphlets assailing the Catholic Church. He died in 1899.

Today, very few readers are aware that Chiniquy once debunked the very same allegations which he later made against the Church. In this context, it is worth mentioning that Chiniquy, after he became a Protestant, never, either in English or in French, in lecture or brochure, in any way whatsoever, attempted to refute his own powerful arguments in favor of the Catholic Church.

Unfortunately, the anti-Catholic books and pamphlets of Charles Chiniquy are still being sold and circulated. Many are available, in full, on the Internet. It is somewhat astonishing that his tirades were not laid to rest with his bones.

Readers of the following document can compare the Chiniquy of the Catholic Church with the Chiniquy of Protestantism.

THE TWO CHINIQUYS: Charles Chiniquy refutes Charles Chiniquy

On January 7th, 1851, several citizens of Ste. Marie, Quebec, Canada, were sent in all directions through the community to announce that a certain Mr. Louis Roussy, who for some weeks had been doing his best to convert the Catholics of the parish, had at last consented to hold the public discussion which had been previously demanded of him in vain. The result was that, by one o'clock, over four hundred persons had crowded into the large hall of the presbytery around the Rev. Mr. Chiniquy and Mr. Roussy, for whom a platform had been erected to enable the crowd to hear to advantage.

Mr. Joseph Harbeck was elected chairman, and Messrs. F. H. Gatien, notary, and Leandre Franchere, merchant, were requested to act as secretaries, and to take notes of what was said and done during the discussion. Messrs. Chiniquy and Roussy then agreed to abide by the decisions of the majority on all personal questions, or those of privilege (but not those of doctrine) which might arise during the discussion. The chairman also undertook to preserve order and silence in the assembly.

Mr. Roussy requested that ten persons should be appointed to assist the chairman with their advice and to enable him the better to maintain order. The Rev. Mr. Chiniquy replied that he did not see the necessity of naming so great a number of persons, as it would tend to complicate matters and lengthen out questions that might arise for decision; besides, that there was no necessity for so many persons to maintain order amongst such peaceable, respectable men as were those among whom he had the pleasure and honor to find himself; but since it was Mr. Roussy's desire he would not oppose it.

Ten persons were, in consequence, selected to assist the chairman. The preliminary arrangements were thereupon completed.

Mr. Chiniquy then rose and spoke, as follows:

Mr. Chairman - This is an event which you have long desired in this parish -- a circumstance for which I, too, have offered up my most fervent prayers. Certain men have come here proclaiming that we are idolaters; that our religion is nothing but a mass of error. They state publicly that Catholic priests are nothing but false prophets who deceive the people. And one of these men is today amongst us to prove, so he says, all these assertions. Well, I am glad to meet him. With God's grace, nothing will be easier for me than to confound him, and to show on which side are the false prophets, ignorance and falsehood.

But before entering into the discussion, I have one proposition to make to you, Mr. Chairman. Mr. Roussy and I have agreed to abide by your decisions on questions of form that may arise between us; therefore in regard to the proposition I am about to submit to you, I wish to abide by your decision. Out of respect for this large gathering, it seems to me but right that Mr. Roussy and myself should both inform you who we are, where we come from, and in what degree we deserve the respect and attention of those before whom we have the honor of speaking.

MR. ROUSSY (rising hastily): Mr. Chairman, I protest against Mr. Chiniquy's proposition. Before coming here, I agreed with this gentleman that during our discussion, there should be no personal questions raised between us, and Mr. Chiniquy cannot make this proposition without violating his word of honor which he has pledged to me.

MR. CHINIQUY: Mr. Chairman, it is certain that Mr. Roussy did not understand me, if he believed that the arrangement made between him and myself, in your presence, as well as in the presence of more than fifty witnesses this morning, deprives me of the right of politely asking him who he is, where he comes from, to what religion he belongs, and who has authorized him to preach. Europe is casting every day thousands of strangers on our shores. Amongst these emigrants, there are some who come here with a character not only equivocal but entirely lost; in a word, there are some who arrive, after having a thousand times deserved the rigors of the law.

I do not mean to say that Mr. Roussy should necessarily be of this number. No, certainly not, but it seems to me, that we, Canadians, would deserve the contempt that many Europeans have for us, if we should be forever ready to bestow our respect on the first adventurer who, decked out with a title, taken I don't know where, comes posing as an apostle of a new religion.

MR. ROUSSY (taking up his cap and overcoat): I am going; this is a carefully prepared trap for me. Mr. Chiniquy violates the word of honor which he has given me, and he insults me by giving it to be understood that I am an unprincipled adventurer.

MR.CHINIQUY: Mr. Roussy is strangely mistaken, if he believes that I wish to insult him. I had not the faintest idea of doing so — but it seems to me that every man who respects himself has a right to know to whom he speaks, with what kind of man he argues. It is to enable me to fulfill the promise that I have made, to avoid all personalities during the discussion, that I ask Mr. Roussy at the present time: who he is, where he comes from, to what religion he belongs; who has given him a mission to preach and explain the Gospel; or by what right he poses as an apostle amongst us, if no one has given him the power to preach. The discussion is not yet commenced. The proposition that I make is not, then in violation of the word of honor I have pledged — not to bring in questions of personality during the discussion.

When Mr. Roussy asked to name a chairman, assisted by ten other persons, to decide personal or formal questions which might arise between us two, he supposed necessarily that during the discussion, some such questions were likely to crop up. The surprise which this gentleman pretends to manifest, appears to me to be nothing but a miserable pretext to escape us and back out of a discussion in which he has more than one reason to fear that the advantage will not be on his side. Besides, Mr. Chairman, it is neither Mr. Roussy nor myself, but you and you alone, who ought to decide this question; and Mr. Roussy is bound to abide by your judgment, if he has any respect for the word of honor which he gave to submit to your decision.

THE CHAIRMAN: Mr. Roussy, it seems to me that the request of Mr. Chiniquy is fair. A man of honor ought never to be afraid or ashamed to declare what claim he has to the respect and consideration of those before whom he appears, particularly for the first time. Although we wish to suppose that you are a gentleman, the greater number of those who form this assembly, and myself in particular, would like to know, for certain, who you are, where you come from, and from whom you hold the mission to preach the Gospel.

These words were heartily applauded by the entire audience. Mr. Chiniquy then arose and handed the Secretaries the following document, saying:

This, Mr. Chairman, will tell you who I am:

IGNATIUS BOURGET, by the mercy of God and the grace of the Holy Apostolic See, the Bishop of Ville Marie (Montreal). We certify and we wish to make known to all those who may read this letter, that the Reverend Charles Chiniquy, Priest, Apostle of Temperance, of our Diocese, is well known to us, and that, after diligent examination, we declare that he leads a life worthy of the Ecclesiastical state, and that he is not, to our knowledge, bound by any Ecclesiastical censure. For these reasons we pray by the mercy of God, all the Archbishops, Bishops, or other Ecclesiastical dignitaries upon whom he may call to receive him well, for the love of Jesus Christ and in case he should desire it, to permit him to celebrate the Holy Sacrifice and to exercise other Ecclesiastical functions declaring that we are, Ourselves, ready to confer upon him these privileges, and others even greater.

In faith of which, we have given the present letter under our hand and seal and the countersign of our Secretary, in our Episcopal city and place, the 6th of June, 1850.

† IGNATIUS, Bishop of Montreal
J.O. PARE, Chancellery Sec.

MR. CHINIQUY: Mr. Chairman, I have just shown you who I am. Let Mr. Roussy do as much; let him tell us what kind of a character he had on leaving Europe; let him tell us by what authority he preaches the Gospel; to what religion he belongs; yes, let him have the condescension to inform us if he belongs to the Episcopal Church of England or the Presbyterian Church of Scotland, or whether he is a Methodist, Juniper or Mormon. These are certainly things it is important we should know, and which we have a right to ask from a wise man who poses as a prophet amongst us.

MR. ROUSSY (rising hastily and taking his overcoat to leave): I cannot consent to remain here any longer. I refuse to give the explanations that Mr. Chiniquy demands, for I would not have come here to meet him, if I had believed he would try to deprive me of my character of a gentleman and a minister of the Gospel. I consider his request a downright insult. If I were not a minister of the Gospel, His Excellency the Governor would not have given me diplomas to bury the dead, to marry and to keep a register of such events.

MR. CHINIQUY: Really, Mr. Chairman, a singular manner to prove that one is a minister of the Gospel. Mr. Roussy assures us that the Governor has given him permission to bury, to marry and to keep a register of such events! To speak to us of a diploma from the Governor, in order to prove that one is a minister of the Gospel, is the most ridiculous and absurd thing, Mr. Chairman, that you and this respectable assembly have ever heard of. A governor may certainly name a justice of the peace, a captain of the militia, a civil magistrate, but he cannot go any further.

When Mr. Roussy assures us that he expected to be treated by me as a true minister of the Gospel, he was laboring under a great delusion. Strangers arriving in this country must take us, doubtless, for imbeciles, when they believe that on their simple word, we are going to give them the titles, the confidence and the respect that they demand -- that we are going, in a word, to bow humbly before their ipse dixit. If Mr. Roussy has, up to this moment met people who were good enough to act in this manner in regard to him, he is greatly mistaken, I can assure him, if he believes that you, Mr. Chairman, and this respectable assembly, are ready to look upon him as a true and worthy minister of the Gospel, before he has given us his credentials. As regards myself, this morning, before more than fifty men, I did something which should have opened Mr. Roussy's eyes, as to what I thought about him. You were present Mr. Chairman, and the circumstance did not, I am certain, escape your notice. I shook hands with everybody except Mr. Roussy.

Mr. Roussy is the first man whom, I believed it my duty, to treat in such a manner. I am only waiting to shake hands with him, but first let him prove to us that his titles are not a usurpation. I shall be pleased and happy to give him my hand at that moment. But to enable me to do so he must show us that he is not imposing on us when he announces himself as a new apostle and a successor of those to whom Jesus Christ has said: "Go teach all nations; I am with you all days even to the end of the world."

MR. ROUSSY (wishing to leave): Mr. Chiniquy insults me, and I will not hold a discussion with the gentleman unless he makes me an apology.

MR. CHINIQUY: Mr. Chairman, if it be an insult to ask a person to whom one has never spoken, whom one has never seen before, and who comes, God knows from where; "Who are you sir? where do you come from? and what do you want?" If it be an insult to ask such questions, I am ready to make every apology (smiling). Yes, I am ready even to throw myself on my knees before Mr. Roussy to beg his pardon if you deem it right. But it seems to me that it is not I who insult Mr. Roussy; it is he who insults us when he tells me, that we have not the right in Canada to demand of the foreigners that Europe is constantly casting upon our shores, "who are you? where do you come from? and what do you want?" Especially when these foreigners pose in our presence as ambassadors of Christ upon earth. Decide, Mr. Chairman. Is it an insult to a man who comes in the name of God, asking us to change our religion; who comes preaching to us a new doctrine; and who announces himself as a minister from heaven, to say to him: "Who are you, and who has given you a mission to preach the Gospel? What proof have you to give us that you know how to interpret the Sacred Scriptures better than the Catholic Church? Prove to us that the Holy Spirit enlightens you more, you alone, than He enlightens the two hundred millions of Catholics who people the world."

THE CHAIRMAN: Mr. Roussy, I do not think that Mr. Chiniquy insults you in asking who you are and who has given you a mission to preach.

Mr. Roussy, being still anxious to leave, Mr. Chiniquy thereupon demanded of the ten gentlemen named to assist the Chairman with their advice: Decide, gentlemen, if it be an insult to ask a stranger who he is, where he comes from, and, what he wants. I appeal to your honor and your good sense. If you decide that it is an insult I am ready to do whatever you deem right to repair it. I am determined, however, that Mr. Roussy shall not escape us. For a long time, I have desired to show this good parish the ignorance of all these makers of new religions, and this opportunity is too fine a one to let slip. I wish therefore to do all in my power to force Mr. Roussy to argue before you. But as I think Mr. Roussy will never consent, for good reasons of his own, to show us what titles he has to our respect as a minister of the Gospel, I withdraw my motion. And without knowing what kind of man I have to deal with, I consent to discuss with him.

Mr. Roussy wished to leave at once, but was stopped, in order that the ten judges named at this gentleman's express wish should give a decision.

Upon which one of the ten, a Protestant named Auger, on behalf of all, said: "Mr. Roussy, as Mr. Chiniquy declares he had no intention of insulting you, in asking you who you are, you ought to accept his explanation. The more so as the gentleman declares himself ready to offer you any kind of apology that we may deem proper to demand of him. Besides as Mr. Chiniquy withdraws his motion and consents to discuss with you without knowing who you are, you cannot under the circumstances honorably refuse the discussion."

This decision elicited great applause, and Mr. Roussy resumed his seat.

MR. CHINIQUY: Mr. Chairman, I would have liked to have known with whom I was going to enter this discussion, and it still seems to me that we have the right to know, but since this knowledge is denied us, let us open the discussion without any further delay. Mr. Roussy travels through the country telling us that the Bible, and the Bible alone, interpreted by each individual, ought to be the sole rule of our faith. He asserts that the Bible is the only authority that can possibly be our guide in the darkest hours of life. He has said that we ought to reject everything which is not proved by a clear text from the Bible. He says that we ought not to take any notice of the Holy Traditions, nor of the authority of the Church. Well, Mr. Chairman, I defy Mr. Roussy to prove these assertions, and I bind myself to demonstrate that each of these propositions is an absurdity.

MR. ROUSSY: Mr. Chairman — Nothing is easier for me to prove than that the Bible, and the Bible alone, and not tradition, is the rule for every man who desires to work out his salvation.

Moses says expressly in the book of Deuteronomy (Chap. 4: 2, 5): "Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish ought from it, that ye may keep the commandments of the Lord your God which I command you. Behold, I have taught you statutes and judgments, even as the Lord my God commanded me, that ye should do so in the land whither ye go to possess it."

This is very precise: "Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish ought from it." Is it not a fact, Mr. Chairman, that this passage is directly opposed to the doctrine of tradition?

In the book of Joshua (Chap. 1:7-8), God speaking to this leader of His people, says to Him: "Only be thou strong and very courageous, that thou mayest observe to do according to all the law, which Moses, My servant, commanded thee; turn not from it to the right hand or to the left, that thou mayest prosper whithersoever thou goest. This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth; but thou shalt meditate therein day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein."

We also read the following words in the book of Nehemiah (Chap. 8: 2-3, 8): "And Ezra the priest brought the law before the congregation both of men and women, and all that could hear with understanding, upon the first day of the seventh month. And he read therein before the street that was before the water gate from the morning till mid-day, before the men and women, and all those that could understand; and the ears of all the people were attentive unto the book of the law. So they read in the book in the law of God distinctly, and gave the sense and caused them to understand the reading."

The 119th Psalm, which is the longest as well as the most beautiful of all the Psalms, is nothing but a repetition of the great advantage of constant meditation on the law of the Lord.

What does God tell us by the voice of the Prophet Isaiah, if not to have His holy law constantly before our eyes and in our heart. These are the exact words of the holy Prophet (Chap. 8:19-20): "And when they shall say unto you, 'Seek unto them that have familiar spirits, and unto wizards that peep and that mutter'; should not a people seek unto their God? For the living to the dead? To the law and to the testimony; if they speak not according to this word it is because there is no light in them."

But let us leave the Old Testament and the prophets; we have seen that they are unanimous in inviting us to meditate upon and constantly study the law of the Lord. They do not speak in the manner of Tradition.

Let us come then to Our Lord Jesus Christ and to His Holy Gospel. We shall see that they are still more emphatic in urging us to study the law of the Lord, and to avoid the traditions of men.

In St. Matthew (Chap. 15:3), Jesus Christ answers the Pharisees: "Why do ye also transgress the commandment of God by your tradition?" Is not the doctrine of Tradition condemned here by the mouth of Christ Himself?

In St. John (Chap. 5:39) does not our Lord positively say: "Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life; and they are they which testify of me."

And what can more positively show us the necessity and utility of reading and constantly meditating on the holy scriptures, than this text from the Acts of the Apostles (chap. 17:11-12): "These [Jews of Berea] were more noble than those of Thessalonica in that they received the word with all readiness of mind, and searched the scriptures daily, whether those things were so. Therefore many of them believed; also of honorable women which were Greeks and of men, not a few."

You can see by all this what we ought to think of a church which deprives its followers of the holy scripture to amuse them with its traditions! And St. John in the Revelation (Chap. 22:18-19), does he not say that those are cursed by God who add to or take away one word of the book of this prophecy. Is not this a striking proof that God wishes us to be guided by nothing but the written words in His Holy Gospel, and that He has a horror for the traditions of men?

MR. CHINIQUY: Mr. Chairman — It was the custom of our dear old grandmothers to frighten little children by childish tales. It seems that it is also the custom amongst reformers of religion to imagine dark and dismal stories with which they horrify and amuse their dupes. Amongst these alarming histories, with which every echo from the so-called reformed countries resounds, the most ridiculous, the most absurd, and the most false, is without contradiction, the one with which Mr. Roussy has appeared engrossed during the reading of the long list of texts which we have just heard, I don't really know for what purpose. Mr. Roussy has so many times heard his old grandmother tell the story that we Catholics are the enemies of the word of God, and that we abhor the Holy Bible, that he firmly believes it. But in reality this is one of those ancient tales for which educated Protestants blush.

Who preserved intact the sacred trust of the Holy Scriptures during the fifteen hundred years preceding the appearance of the lewd apostates, Luther and Calvin, if it was not the Catholic Church? Before these two monsters of impurity had troubled the peace of the world, deceiving people by their sophisms and errors of every sort; before there was even one single Protestant in the world, the Catholic Church not only preserved the sacred writings as her most precious treasure, but she neglected no possible means of spreading their knowledge amongst all nations.

During the short space of time which had elapsed between the wonderful invention of printing and the day that Luther published his first Bible, from seventy-five to eighty editions of the Bible, translated into the different languages of Europe, and forming not less than two hundred thousand copies, had been circulated amongst the people, with the authorization, and often at the expense, of the Catholic ecclesiastical authorities. If the Church, during a few years, was obliged to put certain restrictions on the diffusion and reading of the Bible in modern languages, Protestants alone were the cause of it. These sects had so changed the text in their false translations; they had by their ignorance, or rather by the corruption of their minds and hearts so poisoned this source of life, that those coming to drink of it found in it the death rather than the life of their souls.

Europe was for some time inundated with bibles in which the true text, as acknowledged by well-educated Protestants, had disappeared to give place to the senseless and impious dreams of the sects. Then, but then alone, the Church, rightly fearing, or rather, seeing that those falsified bibles were being taken for the true word of God, put some restrictions for a time on the reading of the Bible in modern languages. She did then what wise and able physicians do in times of epidemics; they forbid us certain foods which are excellent in other times, but which become dangerous on account of the impure disposition of the air, or of our temperaments. But never has the Church shackled the diffusion of the Holy Bible in the Greek or Latin text. Now, at that time, nearly everybody who knew how to read at all understood Greek or Latin; for these two languages were then taught far more universally than they are today in all the principal schools of Europe. But the unhappy epoch when a deplorable epidemic forced the Church of Jesus Christ to take this extreme measure in order to prevent the contagion of evil attacking the very heart of the nations, was not of long duration. The devouring fever which Satan had, by the hands of Luther and Calvin, infused into the veins of Europe, had scarcely lost its intensity and contagion, when the Church once more invited her children to nourish their souls by the reading of the Holy Bible, and put it within the reach of all by the numerous authorized translations, which She recommended everywhere by the voice of Her chief pastor.

Certain Protestants still repeat that the Church forbids the reading of the Holy Bible by the people; this is a cowardly and absurd lie, and it is only the ignorant or the silly amongst Protestants, who at the present day believe this ancient fabrication of heresy; some unscrupulous ministers, however, are constantly bringing it up before the eyes of their dupes to impose upon them and to keep them in a holy horror of what they call Popery.

Let Protestants make the tour of Europe and America; let them go into the numerous Catholic book stores they will come across at every step; let them, for instance, go to Montreal, to Mr. Fabre's or to Mr. Sadlier's book stores; and everywhere they will find on their shelves thousands of Bibles in all modern languages, printed with the permission of the Ecclesiastical authorities.

I hold in my hand a New Testament, printed less than five years ago, at Quebec. On the first page I read the following approbation of the Archbishop of Quebec:

We approve and recommend to the faithful of our Diocese this translation of the New Testament, with commentaries on the text and notes at the foot of the pages.

† JOSEPH, Archbishop of Quebec.

Every one of those Catholic Bibles, to be found on sale at every bookseller in Europe or America in like manner bears irrefutable witness to the fact that Protestantism is fed on lies, when day by day it listens with complacency to its ministers and its newspapers, telling it in various strains, that we Catholics are the enemies of the Bible.

Mr. Roussy has told us that the reading of the Bible was the sole means employed by Christ and His Apostles for the conversion of the world. Mr. Roussy obtains, probably, as all Protestants do, this new idea from his good old grandmother. But, Mr. Chairman, you must see that never has a greater absurdity issued from the mouth of man. It is incredible that men, who are continually talking to us of Bibles and Bibles, do not know that Jesus Christ has said to His Apostles: "Go ye into the whole world, and preach the Gospel to every creature. He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be condemned" (St. Mark, Chapt. 16:15-16). And in St. Matthew (Chap. 28:18-20) Jesus, speaking to his eleven disciples, says to them: "All power is given to me in heaven and in earth. Go, therefore, teach ye all nations; baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you; and behold I am with you all days, even to the end of the world."

It is not, we see, a book that the Apostles are charged to write, to be read to the people to the end of the world. But their mission is to take the form of verbal preaching, in which mission the Divine Saviour promises to assist and guide them, not during thirty, forty or sixty years, but to the end of the world. It is by the preaching of the Apostles to the people, and not merely by the reading of the Gospel by the people that Jesus Christ wishes men to be enlightened and saved, to the end of the world. And this is why the Catholic priesthood, sole possessors of the mission given to the first Apostles, teaches, preaches and explains the Gospel to the people.

Jesus Christ has not said: "He that does not read the Gospel shall be condemned." That is an absurdity and a falsehood: which can have only issued from Hell itself; but Jesus Christ has said to his Apostles for all time: "Preach the Gospel; teach all nations; I shall be with you; he that heareth you, heareth Me; He that despiseth you, despiseth Me; he that believeth on your preaching shall be saved, he that does not believeth it shall be lost." Jesus Christ has not said: "If you do not read the Bible you shall be regarded as the heathen and the publican", but He has said: "If you do not hear the Church you shall be as the heathen and the publican" (St. Matthew, 18:17).

It is then a Church that Jesus Christ came on earth to found, not a book that he came to have written and read. The Gospel is the property of the Church, it is one of its sacred trusts; it is one of its greatest treasures. She it is who is charged to preserve it and to explain its pages to the people. For it is to her alone and not to each individual that the promise was made and the mission given.

To say that Jesus Christ and his Apostles wished the nations to be converted by reading the Bible, interpreted by each individual, is so great an absurdity that I have the greatest difficulty in conceiving how a self-respecting man can possibly allow it to fall from his lips.

Everybody knows that before the invention of printing, books were just as scarce and expensive, as they are nowadays common and cheap. For 1400 years after Jesus Christ, every word had to be written by hand. Now to write out a whole Bible would require a great deal of time. Amongst many nations, almost constantly at war, very few persons knew how to write.

History records the names of even several powerful kings, who did not know how to sign their names. To have so large a book written, therefore, it was necessary to have an enormous sum of money. It was therefore absolutely impossible for the great majority of Christians for the space of 1400 years to either own Bibles or to read them. We also learn from history that previous to the invention of printing it was the custom for people to tax themselves in order to obtain a Bible, which was then deposited in the Church, where the priest would read some part of it every Sunday, and explain it to the people.

It was not by the reading of the Bible, but by the preaching of Apostles, commissioned by the Church of Jesus Christ that the French, the English, the Germans, the Spanish, the Irish, the Greeks, the Romans, and all other nations were converted to Christianity; for amongst these different nations very few persons knew how to read, and a very much smaller number, indeed, had the means with which to procure a Bible. Let Mr. Roussy deny these facts, if he dares.

Well, since it is admitted as an ascertained fact that it was the will of Jesus Christ that His Church should march on to the conquest of souls by means of preaching for 1500 years, it devolves on Mr. Roussy to show us a single text in his Bible, which informs us that Jesus Christ decided that the reading of the Bible by each individual, should, at any period whatever during the life of the Church, take the place of this preaching.

It is clear that if Mr. Roussy's system were based on the truth, Jesus Christ would have commanded his Apostles not to preach the Gospel till the end of the world, but to teach the nations how to read and to give them Bibles. And instead of Apostles, it would have been school-masters that he would have promised and sent to the nations sitting in the darkness of the shadow of death.

Mr. Roussy tells us that Our Lord was opposed to the false traditions of men, but is the Church less opposed to these false human traditions, or does she condemn them less than Her Lord and Master did? When Mr. Roussy says, all that is necessary to be believed and practiced is written in the Gospel, and that it is not necessary to believe in those truths taught by tradition; when, in a word, Mr. Roussy says the Catholic dogma of Tradition is not to be found in Holy Scripture, he simply shows either his bad faith or his ignorance.

Here is a Bible which comes from Mr. Roussy himself. Well, in the Second Epistle of St. Paul to the Thessalonians, listen to what the Holy Apostle writes (Chap. 2:15): "Therefore, brethren, stand fast, and hold to the traditions which ye have been taught, whether by word or our epistle." Here St. Paul tells us that what comes to us by means of the unwritten word, that is to say, by tradition, has the same authority as what he wrote in his epistle. Is it not, then, something more than effrontery on Mr. Roussy's part to dare to tell us to our face that Tradition is not spoken of in the Holy Scriptures?

Again, in Chapter 3, verse 6, of the same Epistle, St. Paul says: "Now we command you, brethren, in the name of Our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from every brother that walketh disorderly and not after the tradition which he received of us."

In the second Epistle to St. Timothy (Chap. 2: 1-2), St. Paul contradicts, in advance, the absurd assertion of Mr. Roussy which maintains that all the truths and doctrines of Jesus Christ are written, and that there are none which reach us by tradition. His words are clear and precise: "Thou, therefore, my son, be strong in the grace that is in Christ Jesus. And the things that thou hast heard of me among many witnesses, the same commit thou to faithful men, who shall be able to teach others also."

Really, Mr. Chairman, when Mr. Roussy told us that everything was written in the sacred books, and that they have nothing to say about tradition, he had either lost his memory or supposed us so ignorant as to be incapable of reading the Epistles of St. Paul. Mr. Roussy has been truly unhappy in the choice he has made of his texts, for the purpose of proving that each individual is obliged to read Sacred Scripture, and has a right to interpret it in his own way.

He has cited the text in which Moses directs that we should observe the law of God. And that is precisely what we wish all to do. Yes, would that all the world meditated on the law of God. Now one of His laws, one of His Commandments, the most absolute is this: "Hear the Church, and he that will not hear the Church must be regarded as a heathen and a publican" (Matt. 18:17).

He next cited Joshua. Now, Joshua was the leader, the great chieftain of his people; he was a man visibly chosen and inspired by God to conduct his brethren into the promised land; nothing could be more natural than the obligation that he should read and meditate on the Sacred Writings, in order to instruct himself and teach others. And exactly in the same manner the Catholic Church obliges all those whom God has chosen as leaders of His people. She commands them to study and to frequently read the Sacred Scriptures.

The good Mr. Roussy has cited against us the Book of Nehemiah; but I believe it must have been absence of mind on his part. For the text which he has quoted proves exactly the opposite of what he had promised us.

Mr. Roussy had promised us, you all know, to show that each individual person ought to have his Bible and read it for himself. To do so, he quotes a text which informs us that not one single man or woman had a Bible, except the priests. "And Ezra the priest brought the law .... and he read therein before all people."

You see, Mr.Chairman, that this Ezra was no better than a Popish priest. Instead of distributing Bibles around by thousands to everybody, as does the cheeky Mr. Roussy, he keeps the sacred volume in his own hands, and contents himself with reading and explaining it to the people, exactly as Mr. Girouard, your pastor, does every Sunday.

As to the extract from Isaiah; it proves that there is something else besides the written law, for God wishes that we should observe the testimony as well.

Our Lord advises the unbelieving Jews to search the Scriptures; but He certainly did not mean this as the only -- or even as the best means of knowing Him, for these Jews would have done better according to Jesus Christ Himself, to have believed His word and his works (John, 5: 24, 36, 38).

The reading of the Bible, wrongly interpreted, was perdition to the Jews, as it is to the Protestants of today. It was with the Bible in hand, that these Jews declared that Jesus Christ was an impostor, and according to the law, he ought to be crucified (John 19:7).

But, Mr. Chairman, I wish to refute Mr. Roussy of his own mouth, and by his own word, prove to him that he is astray and misleads others, when he tells them that in questions of religion they should only admit such doctrines as can be proved by a precise text from the Bible. I wish to make him admit the absolute necessity of having recourse to tradition, and even an infallible tradition, under pain of not being a Christian. I shall therefore request Mr. Roussy to reply to my questions. And you, gentlemen, the secretaries, please write down the gentleman's exact answers; and you my good friends (speaking to the people) listen with great attention to the avowals I am about to draw from him.

Since you say, Mr. Roussy, that we ought to admit nothing in religious matters, except what can be clearly proved by a text from the Bible, will you show us the text that proves that St. Mark wrote the Gospel, and that he was inspired by the Holy Ghost, when he wrote his Gospel?

MR. ROUSSY (rising with an air of assurance): Nothing is easier, sir; here are the very words of the Saviour, in St. Matthew (Chap. 28:19-20): "Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son and the Holy Ghost: teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you, and lo! I am with you always even unto the end of the world."

MR. CHINIQUY: Mr. Roussy will have the kindness to say to whom these words were addressed by the Divine Saviour?

MR. ROUSSY: Jesus Christ addressed these words to His Apostles.

MR. CHINIQUY: The Secretaries will have the kindness to write that the words which Mr. Roussy has quoted, refer only to the Apostles. Now, Mr. Roussy, will you tell us if St. Mark was an Apostle?

MR.ROUSSY: Yes sir, St. Mark was an Apostle.

MR.CHINIQUY: The Secretaries will please write that Mr. Roussy maintains that St. Mark was an Apostle.

MR. ROUSSY (precipitately): No, no, sir, St. Mark was not an Apostle.

MR. CHINIQUY: Write, gentlemen, that Mr. Roussy declares that St. Mark was not an Apostle. Well, Mr. Roussy, since St. Mark was not an Apostle, and since the text you have quoted refers only to the Apostles, it follows, according to your own statement, that it has nothing to do with St. Mark.

MR. ROUSSY: No sir, I was mistaken, and I admit that the text quoted does not refer to St. Mark.

MR. CHINIQUY: Very well, Mr. Roussy, then I repeat my question before this respectable assembly. Show us a precise text from the Bible, which proves that St. Mark was inspired by God to write the Gospel.

Mr. Roussy rises, and commences turning the pages of his book. He is pale, he trembles, he perspires profusely, he takes more than ten minutes to search.

A gloomy silence reigns, only a few feeble murmurs of "He is caught" are heard. But silence is imposed. At last the audience is becoming impatient, and someone speaks: "Come on, Mr. Roussy, what are you doing now?"

The gentleman appears more and more disconcerted. He replies in a trembling voice: "Gentlemen, I beg of you to be patient, I admit I am in very close quarters." These words were followed by a general burst of laughter.

MR. CHINIQUY: You will find yourself in closer quarters in a minute, sir.

MR. ROUSSY (after having searched in vain for a quarter of an hour, falls into his seat, and says in a pitiful voice): "I am not able to find the text I am looking for."

MR. CHINIQUY: Gentlemen, have the kindness to write that Mr. Roussy declares himself unable to find a text from Holy Scripture which proves that St. Mark was inspired by God to write the Gospel.

Another little question, Mr. Roussy. Since according to your religion, one should only believe as true, what can be proved by a text from the Holy Bible, will you find for us the text that proves that St. Luke, who was no more an Apostle than St. Mark, was inspired by God to write the Gospel?

MR. ROUSSY (once more rises, but his face and whole appearance indicate a man completely broken up. He searches again for five or six minutes; then allowing himself to fall back into his chair, exclaims): "I am not able."

MR. CHINIQUY: Gentlemen, will you, if you please, write that Mr. Roussy declares he "is not able" to find a text in his Bible to prove that St. Luke wrote the Gospel.

[Then, addressing Mr. Roussy:]

Very well sir, since you declare you are not able to find a word in the Holy Bible to assure you that St. Mark and St. Luke wrote the Gospels that bear their names, how do you know that it was they who wrote these Gospels?

Then, turning towards the audience, Mr. Chiniquy says, smiling: "Listen well to his reply." A gloomy silence follows for an instant.

MR. ROUSSY: We prove that St. Mark and St. Luke wrote the Gospels by the miracles they wrought.

MR.CHINIQUY: Very well, show me a text from the Gospel where it states that St. Mark and St. Luke wrought miracles.

MR. ROUSSY (rising slowly, admits that he is not able; he murmurs some unintelligible words, then speaks with an embarrassment which he cannot conceal): You ask me, sir, how it is known that St. Mark and St. Luke wrote their Gospels; but, sir, that is only known by the testimony of the early Christians.

At these words nothing is heard but exclamations of joy and the clapping of hands. "He is convicted by his own words"; "He is caught in his own trap", yell voices from the crowd.

MR. CHINIQUY: Yes, my friends, he is taken at his own words, and as you say, caught in his own trap; he is forced to have recourse to the testimony of the early Christians, that is to the Tradition of the Church, to prove the very first of Gospel truths, the existence of the Gospel itself. He is, therefore, forced to admit that he deceived you just now, when he told you everything was to be found written in the Bible, and that anything that could not be proved by some text ought to be rejected.

MR. ROUSSY: I am not caught. It is you, Mr. Chiniquy, who have been caught in your own trap; it is you who are convicted, for you are not able to show us what the Church is, and what authority it has.

MR. CHINIQUY: Since Mr. Roussy does not know what the Church is, I shall have the pleasure of telling him. The early Christians, being divided on certain practices, followed the advice of Our Lord, and appealed to the Church of their day, and this is what took place: (Acts 15:6) "And the Apostles and ancients came together to consider of this matter. And when there was much disputing, Peter rising up said to them: My brethren, you know that in former days God made choice among us, that the Gentiles, by my mouth, should hear the word of the Gospel, and believe." After Peter, Barnabas and Paul were heard. Then James speaks in his turn; but it was only to confirm what Peter had said. Finally, the deliberation being finished, they wrote these solemn words: "For it hath seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to us to decide in such a manner the question that you have raised."

There, Mr. Roussy, that is what the Church is. That is how she spoke 1900 years ago, and that is how she speaks still, and how she still speaks to the end of time; for she can never perish, seeing that Jesus Christ has said: "The gates of hell shall not prevail against her." It is this infallible Church which tells me, a Catholic, as she told it 1900 years ago: "St. Mark and St. Luke were inspired by God to write their Gospels", and I am certain she speaks the truth, for it is the Holy Ghost who enlightens her. This Church, according to St. Paul (1 Timothy 3:15), "is the pillar and foundation of the truth." This Church, outside of which there is nothing but falsehood and error, has been called Catholic since the time of the Apostles, and no other church can ever bear this grand name.

This Catholic Church, to which I have the happiness to belong, is also called Apostolic, because it is united with the Apostles by an unbroken chain of priests, bishops and Popes, who obtain their power, by incontestable titles, from them. This Catholic and Apostolic Church is also called Roman, because it was at Rome that its Founder amongst men (St. Peter) shed his blood and because it was there he deposited for his successors the keys of Heaven, which neither demons nor heretics nor infidels can deprive her of. "Thou art Peter and on this Rock I will build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it" (Matt. 16:16-19).

When I, a Catholic, take the Bible in my hands, I am as certain that it is the word of God as I am certain that there is a God in Heaven, because it is the Catholic Church (the pillar and foundation of the truth) which tells me so.

When I read the Gospel, I read it only with a full and complete submission to the interpretation which the Church gives me, whose voice I am obliged to hear, under pain of being treated by God "as a heathen and publican" (Matt., 18:17). And when I read this Holy Gospel I call to mind the words of St. Peter (2 Peter 3:15-16): "As also our most dear brother Paul, according to the wisdom given him, hath written to you, as also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things; in which, are some things hard to be understood, which the unlearned and unstable wrest, as also the other Scriptures, to their own perdition."

In reading the Holy Scriptures, I call to mind that I am but a poor ignorant man, and that if I depend upon my feeble understanding, I shall very soon go astray; therefore I am careful to understand what I read in the sense that the Church has always taught. For if I am bound to believe that the Church is infallible, when she tells me that St. Mark and St. Luke were inspired by the Holy Ghost to write their Gospels, although I do not find a word in the Bible, according to Mr. Roussy's admission, to prove this truth, I am bound to believe that she is in like manner guided by the Holy Ghost, in the interpretation of the Scriptures, which sacred treasure she alone has preserved for me infallibly.

I have admitted to you, Mr. Chairman, that I am but an ignorant man, and for this reason I am in need of an infallible guide in the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures. I have no intention of insulting, nor of wounding Mr. Roussy in any manner, but I tell you that I believe him just as ignorant as I am, and I believe that he belongs to that class of men of whom St. Peter speaks, when he says, the unlearned do not understand the Holy Scriptures, and wrest them in a false sense to their own perdition.

In spite of my ignorance and my weakness, I am assured that I shall not go astray in the reading of the Scriptures, since I have for my guide the Church, "the pillar and foundation of the truth", and I take for my interpreter that Church, to whom my adorable Saviour has said: "The gates of Hell shall not prevail against it." But I am curious to know how Mr Roussy, who is also a poor ignorant man, can be assured of finding his salvation in the reading of the Bible, when the prince of the Apostles assures us that the ignorant find in it their ruin.

MR. ROUSSY: The Holy Ghost invites us to read the Sacred Scriptures, and in consequence promises to enlighten us. Here is a text which reveals to us, in a most evident manner, this truth: "Evil men and seducers shall wax worse and worse, deceiving and being deceived. But continue thou in the things thou hast learned and hast been assured of, knowing of whom thou hast learned them; and that from a child, thou hast known the holy scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation, through faith which is in Christ Jesus. All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness." (2 Timothy 3: 13, 16).

Here we see St. Paul congratulating his well beloved Timothy for having known the holy scriptures from his childhood. Therefore, we merit the praises of God by studying the Holy Scriptures. Besides, is it not positively stated here that all scripture is inspired by God for instruction and correction? If all scripture is given by inspiration of God for instruction, and correction, how can Mr. Chiniquy dare to say that the reading of the Holy Scriptures is bad and can cause our ruin ?

MR. CHINIQUY: Mr.Chairman, I have already remarked to you that this good Mr. Roussy was unfortunate in the choice of his texts. The one that he has just chosen is going to destroy irretrievably his argument.

In the first place, you see, by this text, that St. Paul says positively, "continue thou in the things thou hast learned and hast been assured of, knowing of whom thou hast learned them." Here St. Paul is not speaking of the Bible, nor of writings at all, he speaks of things that have been learned, and it is very probable, or rather, it is very certain that these things were not written, for St. Paul says to remember them, not from the book in which he had read them, but on account of the person who had taught them to him. And to show how far St. Paul was from preaching Mr. Roussy's absurd doctrine, that all things necessary to salvation are written in the Bible, it will suffice to cast our eyes a few lines higher than the text quoted by Mr. Roussy. St. Paul, speaking to the same Timothy, says to him: "And the things which thou hast heard from me, before many witnesses, the same commend to faithful men; who shall be fit to teach others also" (2 Tim. 2:2).

Yes, continue firm, says the Apostle of the Gentiles, in the things you have learned not only by the reading of the Sacred books, but also in the things you have "heard from me, before many witnesses."

St. Paul made use of no different language when writing to Timothy, than he had used when addressing the Thessalonians, for he said to them also: "Therefore, Brethren, stand firm; and hold the tradition which you have learned, whether by word or by our epistle" (2 Thess. 2:14). And these words of the Apostle Paul, which are the words of the Holy Ghost himself have resounded throughout the world for 1900 years. And, all those who have really believed in Jesus Christ have repeated them, they believe them, and they will repeat them to the very end of time, to the eternal confusion of infidels and innovators. "Hold the tradition which you have learned, whether by our words or by our writings." That has been the teaching of the Church for nineteen centuries. That will be the teaching of the Church till the end of time; for this Church, like the Son of God whose immaculate Spouse she is, can never change. St. Paul was far from upholding the absurd doctrine of modern innovators; he who says positively in his Epistle to the Romans (Chap. 10, 13-17): "Whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved. How then shall they call Him in whom they have not believed? Or how shall they believe him of whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear without a preacher? And now can they preach unless they be sent? Faith then cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of Christ."

St. Paul congratulates St. Timothy on his reading of the Holy Scriptures, but it was because his holy disciple joined to this reading, the most entire submission to the explanations and to the instructions, by word of mouth, of his superiors before God. It is also in this manner that the Church wishes her children to read the Holy Scriptures. The absurd idea entertained by Mr. Roussy, that a knowledge of the Gospel comes by reading alone, was so far from the thought of the Apostle that he cries out: "How shall the nations believe in Jesus Christ if they have not Him spoken of, and how shall they hear Him spoken of unless some one preaches to them?"

According to the Apostle St. Paul, therefore, the best manner, or rather, the only means of knowing Jesus Christ is to hear of Him by preaching, and not by reading. Without doubt, reading is not useless, but it aids the faith of them alone, who listen to the preaching of those who have been sent to preach. But I have told you that Mr. Roussy was going to completely destroy himself with the text which he has quoted for us. If I have understood this gentleman well, he has read to us in his Bible these exact words, "All scripture is given by inspiration of God and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness." Are those not the words you have read, Mr. Roussy?

MR. ROUSSY: Yes, sir. St. Paul says: "All scripture is given by inspiration of God and is profitable for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness."

[NOTE: This debate originally took place in the French language. The word "scripture", in English, commonly means the Sacred Scriptures of the holy Bible. However, in the French version of many Protestant bibles, including the Bible used by Mr. Roussy, the word "scripture", which is here used, is translated in a manner equivalent to the ordinary English word "writing", in every day use.]

MR. CHINIQUY: Mr. Chairman and all of you, gentlemen, who compose this respectable meeting, you have heard these words from Mr. Roussy's Bible. Well, what do you think of them? Yes, what do you think of a man or of a religion which assures you that all writing is given by the inspiration of God for reproof, for correction and for instruction? Up to the present moment, you have believed that there were some books or writings which could only defile and corrupt the heart, but Mr. Roussy has discovered the contrary in his precious Bible.

I know of a great number of books which have been written only under the inspiration of the most wicked passions and are calculated only to defile and corrupt those who read them, but, Mr. Roussy assures us that we have all been mistaken, and he proclaims that all writings are given by the inspiration of God. You have well understood him to say so, have you not? (voices: "Yes, yes," are heard from all sides).

A few minutes ago, Mr. Roussy said, with emphasis, that if anyone added anything to or took anything from the word of God - he is cursed! Well, gentlemen, this being the case, the curse of God must surely be on those who wrote the Bible that Mr. Roussy holds in his hands, for this Bible is false, ridiculously false, when it says that all writing is given by inspiration of God and is profitable for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness."

MR. ROUSSY (rising angrily): How dare you say, Mr. Chiniquy, that the Holy Bible I hold in my, hand is false and deceptive, I defy you to prove it; what you say is blasphemy.

MR. CHINIQUY: I am going to prove to you, sir, that what I have just said, is nothing but the truth; your Bible is false and deceptive to an absurd degree. It is a falsified Bible, and I am about to prove it, at once.

Addressing a respectable farmer, named Gauthier: Sir, by whom was the Bible I hold in my hand given to you?

MR. GAUTHIER: That Bible was given to me by a person who had it from Mr. Roussy.

MR. CHINIQUY: Very well, Mr. Chairman, you are going to judge what should be thought of this Protestant Bible. The Bible that Mr. Roussy holds, says: "All writing is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for reproof, for, correction, for instruction in righteousness." But, the Bible which I hold, and which also comes from Mr. Roussy, does not contain this absurdity, for I read in it: "All scripture, divinely inspired, is profitable to teach, to correct, to instruct in justice."

MR. ROUSSY (rising in a hurry): The two sentences are the same.

MR. CHINIQUY: No, sir, these two sentences are not the same. Is it the same thing, Mr. Chairman, and all you gentlemen who hear me; all of you reply; is it the same thing to say, "All writing is given by inspiration of God" — and to say — "All Scripture, divinely inspired, is profitable to teach", etc.?

From all sides of the hall a unanimous cry is heard: "No, these two sentences are not the same."

MR. CHINIQUY: You are right, my friends; the first of these sentences is an absurdity, and it is only a Bible coming from the hands of Satan himself, which could say, "All writing is given by the inspiration of God." That sentence is infernal in character. No, no, all writing is not inspired by God. There are many writings, there are thousands of books inspired, by the Devil.

Besides, here are two Bibles, both from the hands of Mr. Roussy. If the one which says "All writing (or scripture) is given by inspiration of God" is correct, that which says "All scripture, divinely inspired is profitable to teach" is incorrect.

The latter is copied from the authorized Catholic Bible, and if the Methodists, in copying it, have added nothing to the true Bible, they have taken something from the Bible which Mr. Roussy has before him. This is as clear as sunlight; either they have added to this one the words "divinely inspired", or they have taken them from the other; and as both these Bibles are printed and circulated by Methodists, for, though one claims to be a copy of the Catholic Bible, both come from their hands; therefore, according to Mr. Roussy's words, they are cursed by Heaven for having added to or taken from the word of God."

MR. ROUSSY (taking up excitedly his cap and coat, and wishing to leave, says): I don't care to argue any longer with a man who dares to tell me that my Bible is falsified.

MR. CHINIQUY: I am not satisfied with telling you so, sir, but I prove it. Here are two Bibles, both coming from you — one speaks in one manner, the other in another. Consequently, one of them must be falsified, and you are consequently publicly convicted of having circulated a falsified Bible.

But enough on this question of the Bible and of Tradition. I have confounded you by your own words on these questions.

Let us take up the accusation that you have brought against the Catholic Church of having suppressed the Second Commandment of God.

Did you, Mr. Roussy, put your signature at the bottom of this letter? [Mr. Chiniquy then showed a letter signed by Mr. Roussy, in which the Catholic Church is accused of having suppressed the Second Commandment of God.]

MR. ROUSSY (appearing confused and trembling): Yes, sir, it is I who have signed that letter.

MR. CHINIQUY—Very well; then you must prove what you have stated in this letter.

MR. ROUSSY: No, sir, you have told me that my Bible is falsified, and I am going. (Mr. Roussy again begins to leave.)

On all sides, cries are heard of: "Don't let him escape"; "Stop him"; "You are a coward, Mr. Roussy".

It was only with great difficulty that Mr. Chiniquy and the chairman were able to stop the noise. Order being somewhat restored, the meeting resumed.

MR. CHINIQUY: That is not the only place where your Bible has been shamefully falsified. Here is another of your texts, where the hand of Satan is shown in a plainly visible manner: (Matt. 16:25): "For whosoever wishes to save his soul, shall lose it — but whosoever shall lose his soul for the love of me, shall find it again"

["Car quiconque voudra sauver son âme la perdra ... Mais quiconque perdra son âme pour l'amour de moi, la retrouvera" - French Protestant Bible.]

Is not this a great discovery, the finding of a soul which has been lost for the love of Jesus Christ?

This text seemed to strike Mr. Roussy like a thunderbolt; he starts from the platform where he was, saying: "Amongst the Latins, the soul and the life were the same thing." These words were greeted with an immense shout of laughter; with cries: "The coward, he is running away; he is not able to continue the discussion", and "Stop him from going out".

The chairman and Mr. Chiniquy succeeded in restoring order, reminding the people they had given their word of honor not to do anything to hurt Mr. Roussy.

While Mr. Roussy was making his escape through the crowd, a Protestant, fearing that they would do him an injury, and wishing to protect him, exclaimed: "Mr. Roussy is defeated, it is true, but it is not necessary, on that account, to kill him."

[Mr. Roussy went on his way without suffering any harm.]

The text of the above debate was originally published by Charles Chiniquy in 1851. It was later re-published in 1893 by the True Witness, a Canadian newspaper, as a pamphlet with the title The Two Chiniquys.

(The foregoing online version of the debate has been published through the collaborative efforts of Jim Goodluck, Lane Core Jr., Antoine Valentim, Richard Chonak, Sue Sims and John Pacheco.)


by Joseph George Jr.

reprinted from Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society (February 1976, volume 69, pp. 17-25)

(Joseph George, Jr., at the time of the original publication of this article, was chairman of the history department at Villanova University. He received his doctorate in 1959 and is the author of several published articles on Lincoln and the Civil War. Dr. George is presently retired. He continues to be involved with research and writing on historical topics.)

In 1891 John G. Nicolay, Lincoln's former secretary, received a note from Benedict Guldner, a Jesuit priest in New York, asking for information about a "libellous pamphlet" printed in Germany. The pamphlet, according to Guldner, was a translation of a work "originally written in this country ... in which the author maintains that the assassination of President Lincoln was the work of Jesuits." Nicolay and John Hay, another former secretary to the President, had not mentioned the allegation in their biography of Lincoln, and Guldner wished to know if they had heard the charge and if they considered it false. [1] Nicolay consulted Hay, and then replied:

To [y]our first question whether in our studies on the life of Lincoln we came upon the charge that "the assasination of President Lincoln was the work of Jesuits", we answer that we have read such a charge in a lengthy newspaper publication.
To your second question, viz: "If you did come across it, did the accusation seem to you to be entirely groundless?", we answer Yes. It seemed to us so entirely groundless as not to merit any attention on our part.

Perhaps the decision of Nicolay and Hay to ignore the charge of a Jesuit conspiracy against Lincoln was unwise. A prompt and firm denial might have prevented further publication of the story. [3]

The originator of the conspiracy theory was Charles P.T. Chiniquy, a former Catholic priest who claimed to be a close friend and confidant of Abraham Lincoln's. According to Chiniquy, "emissaries of the Pope" were plotting to murder Lincoln for his defense of Chiniquy in an 1856 trial. Chiniquy's autobiography, Fifty Years in the Church of Rome, published in 1885, attributes remarks to the President on a variety of subjects, particularly religion. [4] Most of Chinquy's stories are so foreign to what is known about the Sixteenth President that scholars have ignored them. Nevertheless, many of the less sensational portions of Chiniquy's reminiscences have been used by serious students of Lincoln's life, and the most sensational passages have been widely quoted and disseminated by writers engaged in anti-Catholic polemics.

Charles Paschal Telesphore Chiniquy was born on July 30, 1809, in Kamouraska, Quebec. As a young man he was ordained a priest in the Roman Catholic church, and his labors to stamp out drunkenness caused him to be known throughout Quebec as "The Apostle of Temperance". [5] In 1851 he moved to Kankakee County, Illinois, to serve a colony of French-Canadians who had migrated there. Chiniquy got into difficulty with his bishop, resigned his position in the church in 1860, and with some of his former parishioners established a new church. In time Chiniquy became a Presbyterian minister and published many books and pamphlets with an anti-Catholic theme. He also lectured extensively throughout the United States, Europe and Australia on the evils of Roman Catholicism. He died in Montreal on January 16, 1899. [6]

It was while he lived in Illinois in the 1850s that Chiniquy met Abraham Lincoln. According to Chiniquy's Fifty Years in the Church of Rome, he hired Lincoln to defend him against a charge of personal immorality; the charge, Chiniquy said, had been brought by his enemies in the Catholic Church. Chiniquy won the case, thereby incurring the wrath of the Jesuits. By Chiniquy's account, when the verdict came in, Lincoln said; "I know that Jesuits never forgive nor forsake. But man must not care how or where he dies, provided he dies at the post of honor and duty." [7]

Chiniquy claimed that he later met with Lincoln on three different occasions in Washington. The first interview, he said, took place at the White House "at the end of August" in 1861. Chiniquy had learned from another former priest of an assassination plot against President Lincoln, and considered it his duty to warn him. Chiniquy reported that Lincoln received him cordially and then made the following lengthy statement:

Your friends, the Jesuits, have not yet killed me. But they would have surely done it, when I passed through their most devoted city, Baltimore, had I not defeated their plans, by passing incognito, a few hours before they expected me. We have the proof that the company which had been selected and organized to murder me, was led by a rabid Roman Catholic, called Byrne; it was almost entirely composed of Roman Catholics ... A few days ago, I saw Mr. [Samuel F.B.] Morse, the learned inventor of electric telegraphy; he told me that, when he was in Rome ... he found out the proofs of a formidable conspiracy against this country and all its institutions. It is evident that it is to the intrigues and emissaries of the pope, that we owe, in great part, the horrible civil war which is threatening to cover the country with blood and ruins. [8]

Also at that interview, according to Chiniquy, he was offered a position as a secretary at the American legation in Paris, a post from which he could not only investigate the evil designs of Napoleon III but also travel occasionally to Rome and check on the Pope and Jesuits there. Chiniquy declined the appointment; he offered as his reason the need to continue his work in America. [9]

Chiniquy reported that the President was so pleased with that meeting that he invited his visitor to return the next day. On that occasion, Lincoln expressed his concern about a report in Democratic newspapers that he had been born a Catholic and baptized by a priest. "I have never been a Roman Catholic", Lincoln assured his guest. "No priest of Rome has ever laid his hand on my head." Lincoln asked Chiniquy if he could explain the meaning of the reports. Chiniquy replied that the charges represented Lincoln's death sentence by the Catholic church. Lincoln then concluded the interview by stating that he was fighting the Civil War against the Pope and his Jesuits as well as against the Rebels of the South. [10]

Chiniquy's second reported visit to Lincoln in Washington, according to Fifty Years in the Church of Rome, took place at the "beginning of June, 1862", but at that time Chiniquy could only shake hands with his friend. The President was too busy for intimate conversation. [11]

The third and last visit was alleged to have occurred on June 9, 1864, the day Lincoln received official word that he was renominated for the Presidency. The following day, June 10, the two old friends, according to Chiniquy, visited the wounded soldiers in Washington hospitals. The President then invited Chiniquy to the White House for a long discussion to Catholicism. Lincoln assured his guest that the Pope and his Jesuits were responsible for the French invasion of Mexico, the New York draft riots, and other outrages. Lincoln also quoted appropriate passages from the Bible and indicated that he was prepared to die for the cause of liberty. [12] Chiniquy then took his leave, never to see Lincoln again.

It is unlikely that any of these meetings took place. As this paper will show, Chiniquy's autobiography contains numerous misrepresentations about his life and association with Abraham Lincoln.

Three years after the appearance of Chiniquy's account, Justin D. Fulton, a Baptist minister, published Washington in the Lap of Rome. The book was dedicated "to Americans Who Will Aid in Throttling Jesuitism, in Uncoiling the Serpent Encircling the Capitol of the United States, and in taking Washington Out of the Lap of Rome; That a Free Church and a Free School in a Free State May Make the Great Republic the Glory of the World." [13] Fulton, a prolific writer, published a variety of books and newspapers with a religious theme. Strongly antislavery in pre-Civil War times, he shifted his attacks to the Catholic church after the war. One historian judged his writings "reckless of fact and effect." [14]

Chiniquy's and Fulton's writings were the basis for several anti-Catholic tracts published in the 1890s. During that decade as the number of Catholics in America rose in proportion to the increasing immigration rate, many non-Catholics became alarmed at what they considered a danger to the United States. By 1893 the American Protective Association -- a nativist group founded in 1887 by H.F. Bowers, an attorney from Clinton, Iowa -- had seventy thousand members in twenty states. APA members took an oath to vote for and hire only Protestants. [15]

Other anti-Catholic authors also borrowed from Chiniquy. In 1893, for example, W.H. Burr wrote The Murder of Abraham Lincoln: Planned and Executed by Jesuit Priests. [16] Thomas M. Harris' pamphlet Rome's Responsibility for the Assassination of Abraham Lincoln denounced Catholic schools as breeding grounds by which to "secure loyalty to the [Catholic] Hierarchy, and to prepare the minds of its children for disloyalty to any other power." Harris cited Chiniquy's story to demonstrate "conclusively the hand of Rome in this stab at our nation's life." [17]

The Chiniquy claims were repeated in 1924 by Burke McCarty in Suppressed Truth about the Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, which was "Affectionately Dedicated" to the author's "Patriotic Mother Who Also Left Rome." McCarty credited the Jesuits with the murders of Presidents William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, James A. Garfield and William McKinley, as well as Abraham Lincoln. McCarty also accused Catholics of an attempt on the life of President-elect James Buchanan, whom the Jesuits were alleged to have poisoned in February 1857. [18] In discussing Lincoln's assassination, McCarty quoted extensively from Chiniquy and added some embellishments of his own. McCarty, for example, stated that Chiniquy visited Lincoln in Washington "once each year." Chiniquy had claimed he was in Washington but three times. [19]

By the time McCarty published what he called the "suppressed truth," there was a new audience in America for anti-Catholic literature. The resurrected Ku Klux Klan opposed American Catholics as well as Jews, immigrants, and Negroes.

In 1921 the Rail Splitter Press of Milan, Illinois, which called itself the "oldest, most resourceful, and most reliable Anti-Papal publishing house in America," printed Chiniquy's charges in pamphlet form. The press also advertised a special envelope with a drawing of Lincoln's face and a quotation from the Chiniquy book regarding Lincoln's fear of Catholics and Jesuits. The publisher estimated that at least five people read each envelope; readers, he said, should use the Lincoln envelopes to "save America" and perform "great missionary work." [20]

In 1922 John B. Kennedy, the editor of Columbia, a Catholic magazine, requested information from Robert Todd Lincoln about Chiniquy's report. The reply was emphatic: "I do not know of any literature in which my father is quoted as attacking Catholics and the Catholic Church. Of course, in the years his name has been a peg on which to hang many things." [21]

But even the denial by Lincoln's son could not stop the circulation of Chiniquy's story. In 1924 the distinguished historian Carl Russell Fish found it necessary to use the pages of the American Historical Review to denounce an account titled "An American Protestant Protest against the Defilement of True Art by Roman Catholicism." According to Fish, the publication, which repeated the claims of Chiniquy's Fifty Years in the Church of Rome, had "circulated by the million." Fish argued that "the spirit of the [remarks attributed to Lincoln] ... is contrary to the whole character of Lincoln's thought and expression." Fish concluded that Chiniquy's fabrication demonstrated the need for a definitive edition of Lincoln's writings and sayings -- a project that would be completed almost thirty years later. [22]

In 1928, when Al Smith, a Roman Catholic, won the Democratic nomination for the Presidency, the Chiniquy charges were again reprinted. The Rail Splitter Press brought out a pamphlet titled Abraham Lincoln's Vow Against the Catholic Church. [23] This pamphlet, like the earlier one from the same press, was based on Chiniquy's charges.

The Abraham Lincoln Association published Lincoln's collected writings in 1953. The nine-volume edition contained no reference to Chiniquy or his claims regarding Lincoln's comments about the Pope, Jesuits, and the Catholic church. [24] Yet in 1960 when the Catholic John F. Kennedy received the Democratic nomination for the Presidency, the Chiniquy story about Lincoln again surfaced. One publication contained the statement that Chiniquy's interviews with Lincoln should serve as a "warning to all Americans who see no danger in having a Roman Catholic in the White House." That widely distributed pamphlet was printed by the Osterhus Publishing House of Minneapolis. The Osterhus pamphlet retold the most sensational portions of Chiniquy's account, taken second-hand from Fulton's Washington in the Lap of Rome. The publisher assured readers that the words were Lincoln's, even though "self-styled Lincoln experts may tell you the contents ... are not among his writings." [25]

In 1963 another former priest, Emmett McLoughlin, published a study of Lincoln's assassination; he concluded that the Pope and his Jesuits were responsible for Booth's crime. McLoughlin, too, acknowledged his debt to Fifty Years in the Church of Rome. The author was particularly impressed by Chiniquy's enduring friendship with Lincoln, during which "the ex-priest visited Lincoln in the White House and frequently warned him of the Church's antagonism and of its threats to the very life of the President." [26]

Clearly, neither the denials by Nicolay and Robert Todd Lincoln nor the publication of the Collected Works would stop the reappearance of Chiniquy's charges. Fifty Years in the Church of Rome was translated into many languages and distributed, among other places, in French Canada, South Africa, Norway, France, New Zealand, Haiti, and Formosa." [27]

Because Chiniquy's autobiography contains several supposedly first-hand observations of Lincoln's religious beliefs, it has been used, albeit cautiously, even by reputable Lincoln biographers. William E. Barton, for example, accepted many of the less sensational portions of Chiniquy's account, particularly the anecdotes describing Lincoln at prayer or quoting long passages from the Bible.

Barton believed that Lincoln "trusted and believed in" Chiniquy. Barton did not believe that Lincoln made harsh statements about the Pope, Jesuits and Catholics, but did accept Chiniquy's version of his 1856 trial. Barton wrote:

Lincoln believed thoroughly in the justice of his cause, and of the bad motives of those engaged in the prosecution ... I think there is good reason to believe that in this trial Lincoln spoke with some severity of the ecclesiastical machinery that could be made available for the crushing of a man who had incurred the ill will of priests. But his words were not recorded at the time, and those who remembered them afterward probably colored them greatly. Father Chiniquy's account of this affair is within easy reach of anyone who wishes to read it, and I think it is essentially truthful, though I do not accept any such account, made from memory years afterward, as reliable in its detail. [28]

Barton also accepted Chiniquy's recollections of visits to Lincoln in the White House. Barton suspected that the incidents were "colored by the imagination" of the former priest but that the account contained "a basis of fact in accord with what we might have expected Lincoln to say." Barton warned, however, that the conversations sounded "much more like Chiniquy than Lincoln." "It is not safe," Barton concluded, "to put Abraham Lincoln on record except in words that he is known to have written or uttered. And to say this is not to impugn Father Chiniquy, who, I think, intended to be truthful." [29]

Influenced by Barton's views, Lloyd Lewis unwittingly helped perpetuate Chiniquy's claims. In Myths After Lincoln, Lewis agreed that the disclosures were based on actual incidents but "were far more Chiniquy than Lincoln." Lewis advanced the view that Chiniquy's "unbalanced imagination" prompted him "to expand some simple remarks of the President into a metaphysical monologue which, though it retained, in all likelihood, some of Lincoln's words, misrepresented him wholly. [30] Emanuel Hertz followed in the Barton tradition and frequently cited Fifty Years in the Church of Rome as a source for Lincoln's religious views. [31]

The evidence is conclusive that reliance on Chiniquy was unfortunate, for his claims were baseless. Chiniquy did meet Lincoln in 1856, and he did engage Lincoln's services as an attorney. But the facts of the trial bear little resemblance to the account presented in Fifty Years in the Church of Rome.

According to Chiniquy, the Bishop of Chicago, Chiniquy's superior, had induced a land speculator named Peter Spink to bring charges of immorality against Chiniquy in 1855. Chiniquy said that the court found him innocent but that Spink obtained a change of venue. Chiniquy was then re-tried, he said, at Urbana. At that time Lincoln was hired as defense attorney and was influential in producing a key witness from Chicago who exposed Spink as a perjurer. After the acquittal, according to Chiniquy, Lincoln declared, "Jesuits never forget nor forsake." [32]

The court records and attorneys' notes from that trial contradict almost every point in Chiniquy's autobiography. The original documents show that Spink v. Chiniquy involved little more than a personal feud between two embittered friends. Peter Spink, the plaintiff in the case, charged in his complaint that "on or about the 10th day of January A.D. 1854" he was accused by Chiniquy, "in a public assembly," of committing perjury. Apparently the public assembly was a church service, and Chiniquy, then a priest, had announced to his congregation that Spink, a land speculator, was advising clients to enter public lands on which French-Canadians had cut timber. Spink's plan, Chiniquy told his parishioners, was to make the French-Canadians pay for the wood. Spink charged that the accusation was "false and malicious" and had caused his clients to lose confidence in him. As a result Spink was unable "to do business as before, wherefore he was greatly injured and sustained great damage." Spink further charged that the priest had "at divers times before the instituting of this suit - slandered and defamed this deponent." Those statements are recorded in the official complaint, "Sworn and Enscribed," on February 3, 1855, in the circuit court of Kankakee County. [33] The official charge brought by Spink was slander, not immorality. The Bishop of Chicago (who was not, in any case, Chiniquy's superior) had nothing to do with the complaint. The trial was shifted, as Chiniquy said, from Kankakee to Urbana, but before, not after, the first court proceedings. There was first a mistrial, and the jury chosen for the second hearing could not agree. Lincoln then became Chiniquy's attorney. In the words of his friend H. C. Whitney, Lincoln "abhorred that class of litigation [slander]," and was influential in bringing about a compromise before a third trial. [34] A statement of agreement, in Lincoln's handwriting, is extant. It reads:

This day came the parties and the defendant denies that he has ever charged, or believed the plaintiff to be guilty of Perjury; that whatever he has said, from which such a charge could be inferred, he said on the information of others, protesting his own disbelief in the charge; and that he now disclaims any belief in the truth of such charge against said plaintiff -- It is therefore, by agreement of the parties, ordered that this suit be dismissed, each party paying his own cost -- the defendant to pay his part of the cost heretofore ordered to be paid by said plaintiff. [35]

It is difficult to believe that Chiniquy and Lincoln would have had reason or occasion at Urbana for a discussion of the evils of the Catholic church -- which in any case had no connection with the trial. [36]

Chiniquy's accounts of later visits with Lincoln and discussions of religion and fears of Catholic plots against the President's life are equally unreliable. David Davis had warned in 1866 that Lincoln was a "secretive man." That Lincoln would discuss his religious views with strangers Davis considered "absurd". [37] John G. Nicolay, writing shortly after Lincoln's death, asserted that he had never heard Lincoln explain his religious view's. [38] If such close associates of the President's as Davis and Nicolay never heard Lincoln speak of his religious views, it is not likely that Chiniquy would have had long theological discussions with him. Moreover, there is no available documentary evidence that Chiniquy was friendly with Lincoln or visited with him privately in Washington.

According to Fifty Years in the Church of Rome, Chiniquy visited Lincoln in August, 1861, and June, 1862. At the first interview Chiniquy claimed that the President not only spoke of the evils of Catholicism but offered his friend a secretaryship in the American legation in Paris. On September 29, 1862, three months after the second meeting was supposed to have taken place, Chiniquy wrote to Lincoln and thanked him for services rendered in Urbana in 1856. Nothing was mentioned of any meeting in Washington or any offer of a position for Chiniquy in the foreign service. The letter, preserved in the Robert Todd Lincoln Collection in the Library of Congress, reads:


I have the honor [and] the pleasure of forwarding to You the adress of my countrymen adopted in a meeting of our whole Colony.
Our gratitude for the good you are doing to our beloved & bleeding Country, is increased by the great services you have rendered me personally, in a very solemn circumstance, at Urbana, Ill.

I have then, a double reason to bless the name of Abraham Lincoln, & to assure you of the respect & devotedness with which I have the h[onor] to subscribe myself, Mr. President,

Yr. Nble Servant,


One finds it difficult to believe that the author of this letter was the confidant described in Fifty Years in the Church of Rome. It is safe to assert that the two men never shared long friendly conversations at any time -- especially between May 23, 1856, and September 29,1862.

Chiniquy's autobiography is more specific about his reported third and last visit to Lincoln, which, he said, took place on June 8, 1864. According to Chiniquy, he was invited to return on June 9 for Lincoln's official notification of renomination by the Republican party. Chiniquy said that he attended the affair, and his descriptions of the Republican delegations conform to the newspaper reports. [40] Chiniquy claimed that he was invited by the President to return the following day, June 10. On that day, Chiniquy said, the two men visited a number of hospitals, and later at the White House had their final conversation about the Bible and the evils of Romanism.

Chiniquy may have attended the ceremony on June 9 and may have met with the President on June 10. If so, it was not as an old friend of Lincoln's, however. The Robert Todd Lincoln Collection contains a letter of June 10, 1864, from one A. Chester to the President. [41] The letter is a request for funds for the school operated by Chiniquy in Kankakee County. [42] In the note Chester expresses his "high appreciation" of Chiniquy's character and commends him to Lincoln "as worthy of your highest confidence -- a man and a Preacher of ability and integrity whom you cannot too much encourage." Chester is clearly not writing about an old friend of the President's. Along with Chester's note is one from Chiniquy, also dated June 10. It reads:


It was my privilege, yesterday, to bless you in the name of ten [?] thousand French Canadians settled in our Colony of Illinois. To day, I approach you to offer you a new oportunity of doing one of the things you like the more; and by which your life has been filled: "a good action."

In the Providence of God I have brought some six hundred families of my countrymen from the errors of Rome; to the Knowledge of the truth as it is in Jesus Christ. Now, I am trying to give to the Children of those converts the best possible Christian & American education, and I have founded a College: "The Saviour's College" where about 130 boys & girls are taught to serve their God & love their country.

But, alone, I can not meet all the expenses of that new Institution. Our Presbytery have advised me to make an appeal to our Freinds [sic] in Washington. The eminent services you have already rendered me, gives me, surely, the privilege of looking to you as our first & noblest Freind.

It is then to you that we go first to get some help for the education of that colony which has already sent more than 150 men to the defense of the Country. 12 of them have shed their blood on the battle Fields of the West.

For God's sake, My dear Mr. Lincoln, do receive with your usual Kindness, my humble requests and Believe me.

Your most devoted Servant,


My residence in Washington is 58th Missoury [sic] Ave.

No reference is made of past intimate conversations. Nothing in the letter suggests that two old friends from the Illinois prairies might have spent the day visiting wounded soldiers or holding a long conversation on theology. Lincoln did visit hospitals in and about Washington while he was President, but there is no record that he did so on June 10, 1864. Also, he never visited more than one hospital on any of the days listed for that activity in Lincoln Day by Day. On the evening of June 10, 1864, the President met with Orville H. Browning and discussed an Illinois patronage matter. [43] Lincoln may have met with Chiniquy that evening, but there is no evidence of it. If such an interview did occur, the subject was probably Chiniquy's request for money.

It is clear that Charles Chiniquy met Lincoln in 1856 in Urbana and engaged his legal services. The facts of the case differ significantly, however, from those reported in Chiniquy's autobiography. As to the three separate interviews in Washington, it is reasonable to assume that the first two never took place. If a third did occur, it was for the purpose of obtaining a charitable contribution from the President. One may also conclude that Lincoln never offered Chiniquy a post in the foreign service, nor did he engage the former priest in long conversations about the Bible and assassination plots. [44]

As the by-no-means-exhaustive list of pamphlets and books cited in this essay suggests, Chiniquy's charges against the Catholic church will be kept alive by sectarian battlers disposed to believe what was said in Fifty Years in the Church of Rome. [45] Scholars, however, even when tempted to use less sensational passages from Chiniquy's book, should be wary. There is no evidence to support his claim that he was a close friend of the Sixteenth President.


[1] Guldner to Nicolay, Oct. 30, 1891, John G. Nicolay Papers, Library of Congress. [2] Nicolay to Guldner, Dec. 3, 1891, ibid.

[3] Nicolay did plan to incorporate the item in a projected volume of spurious Lincoln quotations. After Nicolay died, his daughter gave his notes to the Library of Congress. See, David C. Mearns, "Our Reluctant Contemporary: Abraham Lincoln", Abraham Lincoln Quarterly, 6 (1950), 77-78.

[4] Charles P.T. Chiniquy, Fifty Years in the Church of Rome, 43rd ed. (New York: Fleming H. Ravelle Co., 1886), pp. 692-96 (all references in this article are to the forty-third edition). The volume was first published in 1885, in both French and English. The first English edition was printed by the Craig and Barlow Publishing Company of Chicago. Marcel Trudel, Chiniquy (Trois Rivieres, Quebec: Editions du Bien Publiques, 1955), pp. xxi-xxii. An examination of other editions of Fifty Years in the Church of Rome reveals that the editions vary only in the dedication pages. See, for example, the third edition--published in 1886 by William Drysdale & Co. of Montreal--and the forty-second edition--published in 1892 by the Craig Press of Chicago.

Chiniquy apparently was active in advertising the volume. The Illinois State Historical Library (hereinafter cited as ISHL) owns Mr. Editor, a broadside dated July 13, 1885, which was sent by Chiniquy to newspaper editors. The broadside warned of the dangers of Romanism, identified chapters about Abraham Lincoln, and requested a copy of the review when published. In a handwritten note at the bottom of the broadside, Chiniquy asked the editor to "give the book such criticism it deserves."

[5] New York Times, Jan. 17, 1899. [6] Ibid. [7] Chiniquy, Fifty Years, pp. 654-57, 664. [8] Ibid, pp. 691-92. For Morse's anti-Catholicism, see G.H.G. [George Harvey Genzmer], "Morse, Samuel Finley Breese", Dictonary of American Biography (1984). [9] Chiniquy, Fifty Years, pp. 692-93. [10] Ibid., pp. 693-96. [11] Ibid., p. 698. [12] Ibid., pp. 698-709.

[13] Fulton, Washington in the Lap of Rome (Boston: W. Kellaway, 1888), pp. iii, 115-35. [14] J.D.W. [John D. Wade], "Fulton, Justin Dewey", Dictionary of American Biography (1931).

[15] Winifred Ernest Garrison, The March of Faith: The Story of Religion in America since 1865 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1971), pp. 211-12.

[16] W.H.B. [W.H. Burr], The Murder of Abraham Lincoln: Planned and Executed by Jesuit Priests (Indianapolis: Ironclad Age, 1893).

[17] Harris, Rome's Responsibility for the Assassination of Abraham Lincoln (Pittsburgh: Willams Publishing Co., 1897), pp. 6, 34.

[18] McCarty, The Suppressed Truth about the Assassination of Abraham Lincoln (Philadelphia: Burke McCarty, Pub., 1924), pp. 43-52.

[19] Ibid., p. 69. [20] Charles Chiniquy, Assassination of Lincoln (Milan, Ill.: Rail Splitter Press [1921]), pp. 1, 32.

[21] Thomas P. Meehan, "Lincoln's Opinion of Catholics", Historical Records and Studies of the United States Catholic Historical Society, 16 (1924), 88.

[22] Fish, "Lincoln and Catholicism", American Historical Review, 29 (1924). 723-24.

[23] M. H. Wilcoxon, Abraham Lincoln's Vow Against the Catholic Church (Milan, Ill.: Rail Splitter Press, 1928).

[24] Roy P. Basler, ed., Lloyd Dunlap and Marion Dolores Pratt, asst. eds., Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. 1953-1955) - hereinafter cited as Collected Works. Neither is there any reference to Chiniquy in the supplement to the Collected Works, published twenty-one years later: Basler, ed,. Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln: Supplement 1832-1865 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1974).

[25] Fulton, Lincoln's Assassination (Minneapolis: 0sterhus Pub. House [I960]), p. 2.

[26] McLoughlin, An Inquiry into the Assassination of Abraham Lincoln (New York: Lyle Stuart, 1963). p. 8. [27] Trudel, pp. 306-07.

[28] Barton, The Soul of Abraham Lincoln (New York: George H. Doran Co., 1920), p. 188; Barton, "Abraham Lincoln and the Eucharistic Congress", The Outlook, 143 (1926), 375.

[29] Barton, Soul of Abraham Lincoln, p. 196; Barton, "Abraham Lincoln and the Eucharistic Congress", p. 375.

[30] Lewis, Myths After Lincoln (New York: Harcourt, 1929), pp. 343-45.

[31] Hertz, Abraham Lincoln: A New Portrait (New York: Horace Liveright, 1931), 1, 55-56. See also Edgar DeWitt Jones, Lincoln and the Preachers (1948; rpt. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1970), pp. 27-28; Clarence Edward Macartney, Lincoln and the Bible (New York: Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, 1949), pp. 92-96. A more recent student of Lincoln's religious views, William J. Wolf, was suspicious of Chiniquy but believed that he "did have interviews" with the President. See Wolf, The Almost Chosen People: A Study of the Religion of Abraham Lincoln (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1959), p. 26.

[32] Chiniquy, Fifty Years, pp. 617-42, 653-61, 664.

[33] "Complaint of Peter Spink, Feb. 3, 1855," photostat, Spink v. Chiniquy file, ISHL. Henry Clay Whitney stated in 1892 that Chiniquy's offending statement was made in a sermon. Whitney, Life on the Circuit with Lincoln. Introduction and notes by Paul M. Angle (Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, 1940), pp. 73-75.

[34] Whitney, p. 75. Spink petitioned for the change of venue; he claimed that he could not receive a fair trial in Kankakee because of "the prejudice of the judge." See "Petition of Peter Spink," Nov. 13,1855, photostat, Spink v. Chiniquy File, ISHL.

[35] "Peter Spink vs. Charles Chiniquy [1856]", Herndon-Weik MSS. Library of Congress (microfilm in ISHL). The ISHL Lincoln Collection contains a photostat of a second copy, mostly in Lincoln's handwriting, but with three lines written by others, probably other attorneys involved in the compromise settlement.

[36] ISHL does have a photostat in its Lincoln collection of the handwritten bill for services that Lincoln gave Chiniquy. The document reads: "Urbana, May 23, 1856 - Due A. Lincoln Fifty dollars for value received." It is signed "C. Chiniquy."

[37] Davis memorandum, Sept. 20, 1866. Herndon-Weik MSS. [38] Nicolay to William H. Herndon, May 27, 1865, Herndon-Weik MSS.

[39] Chiniquy to Lincoln, Sept. 29, 1862, Robert Todd Lincoln Collection. Library of Congress (hereinafter cited as RTL Collection).

[40] Evening Star (Washington. D.C.), June 9, 10. 1864; New York Times, June 10, 1864; Public Ledger (Philadelphia), June 10, 1864. The account quoted in Collected Works, VII. 380-82, is taken from the New York Tribune, June 10, 1864. All newspaper accounts agree on essentials regarding the event.

[41] Apparently this is the same A. Chester who edited the Kankakee Gazette from 1853 to 1856; see Collected Works, IV. 30. Chester is known to have been a friend of Lincoln's: he was a lawyer at one time, campaigned for Lincoln in 1864, asked the President for political jobs for friends and himself, and provided some letters of recommendation for people wishing to see the President. See Chester to Lincoln, April 25, June 25, Dec. 16, 1863, and March 3, Aug. 8, Oct. 21, Nov. 15, Dec. 8, 1864 - all in RTL Collection.

[42] Enclosed with the letter is a broadside that endorses the school and requests funds: Alex. F. Kemp, To the Christian Public, Montreal, May 9. 1864.

[43] Earl Schenck Miers, William E. Baringer. C. Percy Powell, eds. Lincoln Day by Day: A Chronology, 1809-1865 (Washington, D.C.: Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission, 1960), III, 264: Theodore Calvin Pease and James G. Randall, eds., The Diary of Orville Hickman Browning: Volume 1, 1850-1864, Collections of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. 20 (Springfield: Illinois State Historical Library, 1925), p. 672. Chiniquy's Canadian biographer presented what he considered only a partial list of Chiniquy's untruths and concluded "les mensonges de Chiniquy sont legion" ("The lies of Chiniquy are legion"); Trudel, pp. 260-62.

[45] The most recent pamphlet of this genre seen by the author is Father Charles Chiniquy, The Gift (Philadelphia: Continental Press [ca. 1974]). Chiniquy was described as a "friend of Abraham Lincoln."

(These three articles originally appeared on Yahoo's Geocities and were preserved by P 9/2009 before Geocities pages went offline).

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